Analysis on the Impact of E-Business on Multinational Corporations' Outsourcing Performance

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电子商务对业务外包跨国企业绩效的影响
中文摘要
随着经济全球化的快速发展,跨国公司已经成为经济增长的重要驱动力。为适应经济全球化和经济信息化新形势,跨国公司纷纷对其经营战略和商务模式进行重大调整。企业之间的竞争从产品竞争发展到服务竞争,从价值链单一环节的竞争发展到价值链全系统的竞争,进而发展到企业商务模式的竞争。外包成为跨国公司全球新战略的重要组成部分,而电子商务也成为跨国企业新商务模式的重要组成部分。作为一种重要的管理经营理念和有效的企业运营模式,企业外包正作为一种高效率的新型产业快速崛起。而以信息技术为基础的电子商务作为跨国企业走向世界的重要手段,越来越受到决策者们的重视。为此,本文通过电子商务对跨国公司业务外包影响分析入手,旨在探索一条可行之路来引导跨国企业如何结合电子商务和外包战略提高企业绩效,为其创造更多价值。 为了阐明电子商务对业务外包跨国企业绩效的影响,本文首先对外包、企业绩效相关理论及中外研究现状进行阐述,为后面的分析提供理论基础。其次,通过对跨国企业外包动因和外包风险的比较分析,得出跨国企业外包与企业绩效关系。本文认为企业外包程度与企业绩效之间存在倒“U”的关系,即企业外包程度过大或过小都会降低企业的绩效,而在完全自制和完全外包之间应该有一个合适的业务外包程度范围使企业能达到其最好也是最合理的绩效;企业完全自制和完全外包间有个企业的外包程度最优点,不同的企业有各自的外包程度最有点,而且该企业外包程度最优点是随着企业环境变化而动态变化的;跨国企业的内外环境动因和风险的相互作用下,跨国企业有个适合自己的最优外包程度,而该外包程度最优点能最好地提高跨国企业竞争能力从而能使企业绩效最大化。最后,通过对电子客户关系管理(eCRM)和电子供应链关系管理(eSCM)还有协同商务的深入分析,认为现代电子商务可以影响跨国企业外包程度,从而影响企业绩效。

关键词: 跨国企业(公司),外包,外包程度,企业绩效,电子商务

Analysis on the Impact of E-business on Multinational Corporations’ Outsourcing Performance Abstract
With the rapid development of the economic globalization, multinational corporations have become the important engine for economic development. To adapt to the new situation of the economic globalization and economic informationalization, multinational corporations come to make significant adjustment on their operating strategy and business model. The competition among the enterprises is service competition rather than product completion, is not the competition among the individual enterprises but the completion among those enterprises in the whole value chain system, and then become the competition of business model. Outsourcing has become the most important component of multinational corporations’ global new strategy,meanwhile e-business has become a very important role in new business models of multinational corporations. As an important managing idea and effective enterprise operating model, outsourcing is developing rapidly as a new efficient industry. And the technology-based e-business, the important means of multinational corporations advancing towards the world, is attached more and more importance by the decision-makers. Therefore, this article mainly analyses the impact of e-business on the multinational corporations’ outsourcing and try to find a way for the multinational corporations on how to improve the enterprise performance and create more value by combing the e-business strategy and outsourcing strategy. To analyse clearly the e-business strategy impact on multinational corporations’ outsourcing performance, this thesis is composed by the following: First, there is an outline of the related theories on outsourcing and enterprise performance, and the present study on it at home and overseas. It provides an theoretical basis for the following analysis. Second, by comparison and analysis of motives and risks of multinational corporations outsourcing, the article gets the relationship between outsourcing and performance of the multinational corporation. The first view is that there is an inverted-U shape relationship between the enterprise outsourcing degree and performance, that is, too little outsourcing and too much outsourcing both will reduce the enterprise performance. Since the extremes produce the worst possible outcomes, while there is some optimum in the middle for the outsourcing degree which can make the enterprise obtain the most favorable and reasonable performance. The second vies is that a firm has some overall optimum level of outsourcing that lies in between complete integration and complete outsourcing. Also, it should be noted that we do not argue there is a universal single optimum. Rather, each firm will have its own optimal level, which is changing all the time, depending on its inside and outside changing environments. The third view is that the multinational corporation has its own optimum outsourcing level under the interaction among the inside and outside motives and risks of the multinational corporation. And this optimum outsourcing level could best strengthen the...
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