Analysis of Vegetables and Fruites/

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Analysis of Vegetables and Fruit Juices

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To analyse some fruits & vegetables juice for the contents present in them.

Fruits and vegetable are always a part of balanced diet. That means fruits vegetables provide our body the essential nutrients, i.e. Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Again their presence in these is being indicated by some of our general observations, like -freshly cut apples become reddish black after some time. Explanation for it is that iron present in apple gets oxidixed to iron oxide. So, we can conclude that fruits and vegetables contain complex organic compounds, for e.g., anthocin, chlorophyll, esters(flavouring compounds), carbohydrates, vitamins and can be tested in any fruits or vegetable by extracting out its juice and then subtracting it to various tests which are for detection of different classes of organic compounds. Detection of minerals in vegetables or fruits means detection of elements other than carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

1. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are poly-hydroxyalcohols, which have an aldehyde or ketones group. They have general formula CnH2nOn. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy 1 gm. of carbohydrates yield 18 KJ of energy. The monosaccharides serve as building block. Glucose is also used in formation of fats & amino acids. This article is the property of Any unauthorized use is strictly prohibited. Please visit for more information. 2. Minerals: Minerals from 1-3% of the cell contents. Any marked change in the concentration results in the malfunctioning of cell & finally death. Some mineral present in the diet are: (i) Calcium: It is the major component of bone & teeth. Calcium is required for blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission & heart functioning. (ii) Iron: Haemoglobin in our body contains iron which is the universal carrier of O2 & C02 , efficiency of iron causes anaemia due to failure of haemoglobin synthesis.

Development of fruit: After fertilization the ovary also begin to grow and gradually it matures into the fruit. The fruit may, therefore, be regarded as a mature or ripened ovary. If, for some reason or other, fertilization fails, ovary simply withers and falls off. A fruit consists of two portions, viz. the per carp (peri, round: karpos, fruits) developed from the wall of the ovary, and the seed developed from the ovules, apples, pineapples and some other fruits the ovary may grow into the fruit without fertilization. Such a fruit is seedless or with immature seeds and is known as the parthenocarpic fruit. The pericarp may be thick or thin, when thick,it may consist of two or three parts: the outer cell epicarp, from the skin of the fruit; the middle, called meson carp, is pulpy in fruits like mango, peach, plum etc. and the inner catted endocarp, is often very think and membranous, as in orange, or it may be hard and stony as in many palms, mangoes, etc. In many cases, however, the pericarp is not differentiated into these three regions. Function of the fruit: The fruit gives protection to the seed and, therefore, to the embryo. It stores food material. It also helps in dispersal of the seed. Normally it is only the ovary that grows into the fruit; such a fruit is known as the true fruit. Sometimes, however, other floral parts, particularly the thalamus or even the calyx, may grow and form a part of the fruit; such a fruit is known as the false fruit. Common examples of false fruits are apples, pear, cashew nut, marking not, rose, dillenia, etc. In dillenia, the calyx becomes thick and fleshy forming the only edible part of the fruit.

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