Experiment # 5: Volumetric Analysis of a Carbonate – Bicarbonate Mixture Submitted by: Eugenio
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Santo Tomas
Soda ash is the common name for sodium carbonate (NaCO3), a chemical salt derived from carbonic acid. It is frequently used in manufacturing, industry, and in domestic chores. Glass production is one of the primary industrial uses for sodium carbonate. It is also used as an additive for detergents, and it can also be used in cooking as a food additive. Sodium carbonate is a natural water softener, as it prevents hard water from obstructing the chemical reactions initiated by detergents. Soda ash prevents hard water from bonding with the detergent, allowing it to be distributed more evenly during the washing cycle. Sodium carbonate used in this purpose is often sold as washing ash or washing soda. In these experiments, the objective is to determine the percentage purity of sodium carbonate by titration and to determine the percentage sodium bicarbonate by titration using the pH meter.
Sodium carbonate is a chemical compound used since ancient times. The Ancient Egyptians, for instance, made glass containers from soda ash as early as 3500 BC. The early Romans expanded its use beyond glass as an ingredient in medicinal compounds and bread.1 Soda ash and materials made from it can be found in most industries. In modern times, it is used in the manufacture of soap, glass, and paper. It is also used the ultimate analysis of coal and tar.2 Soda ash is commonly manufactured using the Solvay process in which CO2 is bubbled through a concentrated sodium chloride solution at 0 oC and saturated with ammonia. Sodium hydrogen carbonate precipitates from the solution and is isolated. Heating the solution to 300oC allows the sodium hydrogen carbonate to decompose, forming sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide, and water. The...