To analyze a poem stylistically, we can analyze the poetic device, which is usually deviation and foregrounding, that the poet used in the poem. The term foregrounding refers to an effect brought about in the reader by linguistic or other forms of deviation in the literary text (Leech, 1985).In poem, devices of foregrounding and deviation are always used to draw reader’s attention and impress the readers. In the aspect of deviation and foregrounding, there are some perspectives on the nature of poetic language. The first one is on the phonological level (phonological deviation). It is the sound system of a given language and the formal rules of pronunciation. (Aslam, Mukhtar & Sarfaraz, 2014) The second one is on the graphlogical level which is the study of a language’s writing system and the appearance created by using capital letters, ellipsis and so on in the poem. The third one is on the grammatical level (or morphological deviation). It is a method to analyze the sentence structure in the poem. Then is the lexical level (also called semantic deviation) which study the way in which individual words and idioms tend to pattern in different linguistic context and the meaning of the poem. (Aslam, Mukhtar & Sarfaraz, 2014) All of these perspectives are important in poem stylistic analysis. But here, in this essay, it would focus on discussing how the use of sound and rhythm (phonological deviation) covey the complement meaning by using the poem ‘Late For School’ by Jenny Myers.
Sound dimension of language belongs to speech. (Jeffries & Mcintyre, 2004) Poetry is written literature, it is less likely to be read of spoken. However, since poetry is in written form, the written equivalent of the phonological level can be much more liberally and usefully exploited. (Jeffries & Mcintyre, 2004). Actually there is a close relationship between written and spoken language. In the case of poetry, some techniques are used to make the meaning of the poems more easily to be deducted via reading the text out loud.
Sound and rhythm techniques are always used in poem to create musical effect. Alliteration, assonance, parallelism, rhythm, repetition etc. are examples of these techniques. Alliteration is the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables of a phrase. (Alliteration - Wikipedia) For example, ‘Sarah spoke softly to her dog.’, ‘Sarah’, ‘spoke’, and ‘softly’ start with the same sound /s/. Assonance takes place when two or more words close to one another repeat the same vowel sound but start with different consonant sounds. For example, ‘We light fire on the mountain’ (Literary Devices, 2014), the words ‘light’ and ‘fire’ contain the same vowel sound /aɪ/. Parallelisms is that the two sentence contain the same grammatical structure. Rhythm is the patterned recurrence, within a certain range of regularity, of specific language features, usually features of sound. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2014) Repetition is that the same word of the same group of words are repeated, no matter is the same sentence or different stanza. These devices would further demonstrated by analyzing the following selected poem: LATE FOR SCHOOL
1 Wake up, wake up, you’re gonna be late
2 We’ll never get there at this rate,
3 Up out of bed, pull up your sock
4 Look at the time, it’s eight o’clock
5 Come on, come on quick get dressed
6 Get a move on, your hair’s all messed
7 Quick, quick, get in the car
8 Because we’ve got to go very far
9 We just made it to the school gate
10 And it’s just turned half past eight.
By Jenny Myers (13)
In this poem ‘Late For School’ , there are many of sound and rhythm used to convey and complement meaning.
Firstly, there is repetition in line 1 ‘wake up, wake up’, line 5 ‘come on, come on’ and line 7 ‘quick, quick’. Repetition is very commonly used in poetry. This is used to emphasize a particular point to make the poem easier to memorize....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document