As students, we are taught the basics about mathematics. What the core properties of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division mean. How they work, and if we are lucky, we go into a little history of these methods. For those of us who have learned history, we learned that the basis for modern mathematics came from the Greeks and their writings. While this is correct, to truly understand the historical aspect of mathematics and its origins, one must study a time before the Greeks, when math was a whole new language, and one we still today have not completely mastered. Perhaps the most interesting group to study is one of the first known civilizations, the Babylonians from Mesopotamia; the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in modern day Iraq. The Mesopotamian people are considered the founders of the first sophisticated, urban cities, and the founders of writing and keeping records. It was then that the idea of writing evolved as a means to record the most essentials of founding a city, mathematics. As a people who flourished from the land, it has been determined that the main uses for a mathematical language were utilitarian. It is believed that agriculture was invented in Mesopotamia, as the land between the rivers provided for much fertile ground (5). Because of this, research has found that the Babylonians made a number system to represent livestock, produce, and their basic way of life. According to Elanor Robson, they used “…small clay ‘tokens’ or counters’, made into various geometric...shapes” (2) . For them, each counter had both a qualitative and a quantitative meaning. So, there was actually not a one-to-one correspondence and this leads to the belief that the earliest mathematics by the Babylonians must not have been for counting and solving purposes, but instead for accounting and manufacturing purposes (2). From what we have discovered today, the Babylonians transcribed their work on many tablets written in what is today called Cuneiform notation (1). Because it was both a stable source and very plentiful, the Babylonians used clay to both build their buildings and transcribe their works. On these tablets, they kept record of the tables they created to solve linear equations, and used those tables to solve some of the most basic problems that they kept for a record. These tablets have become sources of pure satisfaction and amazement for researchers for generations. On these tablets, we have found that the Babylonians created their own number system, much like the one we use today, only of base 60 and of base 10. It is believed that this base 60 came to be because of how easily it worked with any numbers lower than it. For instance, 60 can be divided by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, and 30. Thus the Babylonians equated that number 60 to 0, much like number rings in ring theory (6). The break at 10 seems to show that the Babylonians did mathematics as a purely additive function, that is, the symbol for 40 is the symbol for 10 four times. In other words, the Babylonians used concepts like multiplication and division as faster forms of addition and subtraction, much like we do today. A table of the Babylonian base 60 is shown below. If one examines it, it is clear that their system was additive, in that the symbol for 10 is just duplicated over and over for multiples of 10. (4)

By creating a break at 60, the Mesopotamians displayed their knowledge of a place value system, and based on our research of ancient mathematics, they were actually one of only 4 cultures who understood the concept of place value in numerology (6). What is interesting is the Mesopotamians did not have a value for the number 0, and thus it seems they believed the notion of 0, like negative numbers, simply did not exist in the natural world (1). It is determined now that the notion of 0 likely came from the Indian mathematicians of the ancient worlds, who in turn likely got their notions of mathematics and number...

...Babylonian Mathematics1
1 Introduction
Our first knowledge of mankind’s use of mathematics comes from the Egyptians and Babylonians. Both civilizations developed mathematics that was similar in scope but different in particulars. There can be no denying the fact that the totality of their mathematics was profoundly elementary2 , but their astronomy of later times did achieve a level comparable to the Greeks.
Assyria
2 Basic Facts
The Babylonian civilization has its roots dating to 4000BCE with the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. Yet little is known about the Sumerians. Sumer was first settled between 4500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic
1 °2002, c 2 Neugebauer,
G. Donald Allen 1951
BabylonianMathematics
2
people who did not speak the Sumerian language. These people now are called Ubaidians, for the village Al-Ubaid, where their remains were first uncovered. Even less is known about their mathematics. Of the little that is known, the Sumerians of the Mesopotamian valley built homes and temples and decorated them with artistic pottery and mosaics in geometric patterns. The Ubaidians were the first civilizing force in the region. They drained marshes for agriculture, developed trade and established industries including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. The people called Sumerians, whose language prevailed in the...

...History of mathematics
A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1]
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available arePlimpton 322 (Babylonianmathematics c. 1900 BC),[2] the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC)[3] and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-calledPythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greekμάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction".[4]Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning andmathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.[5] Chinese...

...HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
The history of mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself. Since antiquity, mathematics has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. It has evolved from simple counting, measurement and calculation, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, through the application of abstraction, imagination and logic, to the broad, complex and often abstract discipline we know today.
From the notched bones of early man to the mathematical advances brought about by settled agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the revolutionary developments of ancient Greece and its Hellenistic empire, the story of mathematics is a long and impressive one.
Prehistoric Mathematics
The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone, discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon's fibula. Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggest early attempts to quantify time.
The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known...

...The evolution of mathematics might be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions, or alternatively an expansion of subject matter. The first abstraction, which is shared by many animals,[19] was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.Evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, seasons, years.[20]
More complex mathematics did not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.[21] The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns and the recording of time.
In Babylonianmathematics elementary arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have been many and diverse, with the first known written numerals created by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus.[citation needed]
Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of...

...Babylonian Government
Babylonia had a very good and simple government. Babylonia had a Monarchy government run by many kings. Hammurabi (6th king of dynasty) provided Babylon with a strong central government. This government was fair to all citizens and easily controlled. All the economy was controlled by the government, thus there were no private businesses. To keep the control of the economy kings sometimes placed priests in charge.
Important Contributions
Babylonian is mostly famous for the studies of Astronomy and Mathematics. The Babylonian created a numeral system based on the present day number 60. This helped derive the 360 degree system. As well as 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. Babylonian artisans also had great pottery work. Last, the Babylonians took advance steps toward medicine.
Important People Hammurabi
Hammurabi was born 1810 B.C. in Babylon. Hammurabi is known for laws called Hammurabi's Code, one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. The code of Hammurabi contained 282 laws, written by scribes on 12 tablets. Hammurabi was one of the first dynasty kings of the city-state of Babylon, and inherited the throne from his father. Hammurabi turned on the southern power, thus gaining control of the entirety of the lower Mesopotamian plain. In 1750 B.C he...

...Mathematics of the Greeks and the Mayans
Mathematics is the study of time, space, structure, and quantity which is used to calculate almost anything in the world from the amount of atoms in an element to calculating the air pressure in a room. Although levels of math such as calculus are not taught until college, the use and study of mathematics have been around since the beginning of time and the world wouldn’t be able to function without it. The term “mathematics” comes from the Greek word mathema which means study, knowledge, or learning. Along with philosophy and astronomy, the ancient Greeks were well known for their development and contribution as brilliant mathematicians. Despite their widely spread fame as the world’s first greatest mathematicians, the Greeks had competitors. My contention is that the Mayans were one of the top mathematicians of the ancient world and were even more advanced than the Greeks.
Ancient Greek mathematics has been developed since the early seventh century B.C. which could also be called the period during the Hellenistic Mathematics. Some of the greatest Ancient Greek mathematicians were Pythagoras, Aristotle, Anaxagoras, Euclid, Archimedes, Thales, and Aristarchus. These Greek mathematicians were big on the development of geometry which is a subdivision of math that focuses on shapes, size, and the relativity of space. Although their number system was...

...Babylonian Creation Myth
-Niyati Roy
The Enuma Elish (also known as The Seven Tablets of Creation) is the Mesopotamian creation myth whose title is derived from the opening lines of the piece, `When on High'. All of the tablets containing the myth, found at Ashur, Kish, Ashurbanipal's library at Nineveh, Sultantepe, and other excavated sites, date to c. 1100 BCE
In ancient times, there was no universe. There was only undifferentiated water swirling in chaos. Out of this swirl, the waters divided into sweet, fresh water, known as the god Apsu, and salty bitter water, the goddess Tiamat. Tiamat and Apsu filled the cosmic abyss with the primeval waters. Once these two differentiated, they created the gods Lahmu and Lahamu, who rose from the silt at the edge of the water. When Lahmu and Lahamu joined, they created the great gods Anshar, Kishar and Anu.
From this generation of gods there arose mighty Ea and his many brothers. Ea, who was the god of rivers and was Tiamat and Apsu's great-grandson, was born. Ea was the cleverest of the gods, and with his magic Ea became the most powerful of the gods, ruling even his forebears.
However these deities were very noisy. Their noise disturbed Apsu to no end. He couldn’t sleep at night or work in the day. Growing frustrated by the noises created by the young gods, Apsu consulted his advisor, Vizier. Vizier advised Apsu to kill the young deities. Mummu advised: Do destroy, my father, the mutinous ways. Then shalt...

...fertile soil along the bank, the early Egyptian had to solve the problem of size and boundaries of land along the Nile River. Changes happened in the contour of the land had caused confusion among landowners. So a system of making boundaries, measuring lengths and areas had to be discovered. From this circumstance the name “Geometry” has evolved. The word “Geometry” originated from the word “Geo” means “earth” in Greek and “metros” means “to measure”.
It was arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. It began with a practical need to measure shapes. It is the science of shape and size of things.
Geometry was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers.
ANCIENT GEOMETRY (3000BCE – 500BCE)
*Many ancient civilizations like the Babylonians, Egyptians, Hindus and Chinese, laid the foundation for geometry as practiced today.Before recorded history, geometry existed as simply, * the science of measuring land and storage containers. The first concepts of geometry “had their origin in simple observations stemming from human ability to recognize physical form and to compare shapes and sizes. *These types of situations brought into being the geometric concepts of vertical, parallel and perpendicular. *
Let us sum up the history of geometry from its beginnings in peg-and-cord constructions for circles and squares.
The circle and square were sacred figures and were studied by...

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