Analysing problems with the implementation of inclusive education policies in India using Multiple Governance Framework DRAFT
EGPA Conference, 7-10 September, 2010, Toulouse
EGPA Permanent Study group XIII on Public Policy
Analyzing implementation in the age of governance
Analysing problems with the implementation of inclusive education policies in India using Multiple Governance Framework Monika Nangia
Reflecting its deep commitment to universalizing access to and completion of elementary education of satisfactory quality by 2010, the Government of India (GOI) launched the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), the National Program for Universal Elementary Education (UEE) The program provided a comprehensive policy and budgetary framework for achieving the goal enshrined in the 86th Constitutional Amendment (2002) of making elementary education a fundamental right of every child. Using the Multiple Governance Framework approach, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of a complex policy environment in inclusive education. In so doing, it deals with the inherent policy contradictions in policy initiatives and challenges the conventional approach to policy analysis by exploring organisational arrangements that impede rather than facilitate implementation. Introduction
This paper examines the problems related with the implementation of inclusive education policies in India. The focus is on the government scheme Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) programme launched in 2002 based on the principles of ‘education for all’.1 This study not just explores the complexities of the policy issues but unravels the complex organisational arrangements that make it a unique study of implementation analysis. At the outset, the decision-making process has to reconcile the differences between two policy streams - the educational ‘entitlement’ of children in mainstream schools and the educational ‘needs’ of children with disabilities – before a coherent policy can be established. The implementation is 1 http://www.educationforallinindia.com/ Accessed on 16/08/10. 3
beset with complex organisational dilemmas involving two key government institutions – Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJE) – both of which are responsible for the formulation and delivery of inclusive education policies nationally. Additionally, there are several other institutions and individuals that are involved in the implementation exercise, including research and training institutions such as the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT), State Institutes of Educational Management and Training (SCERTs), District Institutes for Education and Training (DIETs), Village Education Committees (VECs), schools, teachers etc. Given the multi-dimensional and nested character of the ‘multiple governance framework’ (MGF) developed by Hill and Hupe (2006, 2009),2 it provides an opportunity to examine these multi-faceted policies in their complex organisational settings. The MGF approach was developed from Elinor Ostrom’s institutional analysis framework which in itself is a derivative of a principle that examines ‘how institutions affect the incentives confronting individuals and their resultant behaviour’3. It is presented by its originators as a way to deal with a policy problem that cannot be explored in depth within traditional stages heuristic. It argues that whilst the ‘stages model’ of the policy process has the merit of identifying any detailed policy that is implemented can logically be seen as a product of a nested tier of preceding decisions that structure it, it carries with it normative assumptions about what these decisions should be and particularly about who should make them. In other words, it is rooted in the traditional assumptions about the precedence of politics over administration. The MGF takes into account the three tiers of decision making –...