Analysing Crowd Control

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Are inadequate crowd control measures a significant problem for major events?

Abstract
Crowd management is known to be one of the most essential aspects within any major event. From pre planning stages to execution, crowd control techniques lay a foundation for a controlled, safe and well-regulated environment. Due to poorly established risk assessments and crowd administration, many large-scale events in the past have ended in terrible tragedy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trends of crowd management that are compromising the safety of all event attendees and determine how these trends can be rectified for future concerts and festivals. This will be achieved by exploring what crowd control entails and identifying the mistakes from past events, with particular reference to the recent Love Parade tragedy in Duisburg, Germany 2010.

Literature Review

Crowd control management is one of the most critical aspects of any major event. Regrettably there are hundreds of examples that show how crowd management procedures in the past have failed and compromised the safety of the event attendees. In order to gain an in-depth insight into the problems associated with ineffective crowd management, credible secondary data was collected. Three sources written at different stages over the past twenty years were evaluated for this study, each giving a view on the significance of the crowd control procedures and risk analysis linked with major events. The articles examined for this report were “crowd control” 1993 by Lori. K Miller, “Minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques” 2001 by Anna Abbot and Morgan Geddie, “Risk, Rationality and Resilience” 2010 by Carlo Jaeger.

“Crowd Control” is a journal article written in 1993 by Lori K, Miller. It focuses on the importance of designing and implementing sound crowd control policies to help prevent accidents and losses during events. Although the article has not been recently published, it highlights the long-running issues regarding crowds that have been the main topic of concern for events managers; these certain issues still relevant today. Through the use of examples from the European soccer cup and a city college stampede in New York, Miller discusses in depth the ways that liability can be minimised by effective control measures of a crowd. Miller focuses on the ‘foreseeability’ of a risk during an event and existing adequate crowd control measures in place before the event has begun. The use of this article will provide a base for further research on the early methods of crowd control management that are still effective in today’s society.

The second key resource used is an article by Anna Abbot and Morgan Geddie called “Minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques” written in 2001. Similar to Miller’s ‘crowd control’ article, this study explores the significance of crowd management and discusses the need for proper operating procedures. Furthermore the article examines the impact of inadequate management and control of a crowd and analyses recent legal opinions regarding unsatisfactory crowd control techniques. Abbott and Geddie discuss the distinct differences of crowd management and crowd control explaining that the former includes employment, facilitation and movement of a crowd where the latter comprises of practical and professional steps that need to be taken once a crowd has begun to behave disorderly. This source proves to be beneficial for the writer’s journal article as it signifies each pertinent aspect of crowd management; these include communication, behaviours, security, event conditions, preventative tactics and emergency situations. This information can be thoroughly related to the examples the author wishes to use.

The final key source is “Risk, Rationality and Resilience” by Carlo Jaeger written in 2010. The article states that large risks is one the of key challenges for humankind in...
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