An Integrative Model of Counselling

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An Integrative Model of Counseling
Frank-Hagen Hofmann
Contact: Counseling Service for Students Gartenstraße 2 ▪ D-69115 Heidelberg fh.hofmann@stw.uni-heidelberg.de

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Who I am…
• 2001 – 2006
Study at the Department of Psychology, Heidelberg University

• Since april 2007
PhD student at the Counseling Service for Students, University of Heidelberg Currently training in Behavior Therapy

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Integrative Counseling
• Table of contents:
▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Introduction Description of components Benefits and implications for practicioners Illustration Empirical evaluation

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Why do we need an Integrative Model of Counseling?
• Introduction • Components • Implications

• Eclecticism is frequent
▫ Coherent theoretical framework is lacking ▫ No rational why techniques work ▫ Scientifically unsatisfying

• Illustration
• Evaluation

• Different approaches to counseling and psychotherapy do not exclude each other ▫ Potential for mutual supplementation

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Alliance
• Introduction • Components ▫ Alliance

▫ ▫ ▫

• The most important unspecific determinant for treatment outcome • Implicitly present in every approach to psychotherapy and counseling • Relationship between counselor and client plays a major role in client-centered counseling ▫ Empathy ▫ Genuineness ▫ Unconditional regard Rogers (1957)

Behavior
Cognitions Dynamics Existential

• Implications
• Illustration • Evaluation

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Alliance
• Introduction • Components ▫ Alliance

▫ ▫ ▫

• Relationship between client and counselor
▫ constitutes the frame in which specific interventions take place!

Behavior
Cognitions Dynamics Existential

• „The success of all techniques depends on the patient‘s sense of alliance …“ • Luborsky: Helping Alliance • Bowlby: Attachment Theory ▫ Counselor as a „secure base“

• Implications
• Illustration • Evaluation

▫ Alliance as a prerequisite for change

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Behavior
• Introduction • Components ▫ Alliance

• Behavioral Counseling
▫ Short-term, collaborative, problem-oriented, active and directive

▫ Behavior
▫ ▫ ▫ Cognitions Dynamics Existential

• Dysfunctional behavior patterns can be…
▫ part of the problem and/or ▫ maintaining factor

• Implications • Illustration • Evaluation

• Previously learned behavior patterns are „unlearned“ ▫ Development of functional alternatives

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Behavior
• Introduction • Components ▫ Alliance

• Behavioral Counseling
▫ Pragmatic behavioral rules

▫ Behavior
▫ ▫ ▫ Cognitions Dynamics Existential

• Operant Learning: reinforcement
▫ Implicit through verbal approval and general acknowledgement ▫ Self-management techniques

• Implications • Illustration • Evaluation

• Social Learning: the counselor as an example
▫ Role-plays or covert modeling ▫ Transfer of implicit attitudes, norms and values

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Cognitions
• Introduction • Components ▫ Alliance

• Cognitive Counseling
▫ reactions depend on the counscious and unconscious appraisal of the situation ▫ changing maladaptive cognitions ▫ providing new information-processing skills

▫ Behavior
▫ ▫ ▫ Cognitions Dynamics Existential

• Implications • Illustration • Evaluation

• Selective and focussed • Frequently combined with behavioral interventions

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Fedora Summer University, Leiden 16.06.2008

Cognitions
• Introduction • Components ▫ Alliance

• Rigid demands and awfulizing beliefs • Socratic Dialogue ▫ Questioning the dysfunctional belief system ▫ Development of consistent beliefs

▫ Behavior
▫ ▫ ▫ Cognitions Dynamics Existential

• Change is initiated during counseling
▫ Completed...
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