An Instrument to Measure Job Satisfaction of Nursing Home Administrators

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An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators Nicholas G Castle [pic]
A649 Crabtree Hall, Graduate School of Public Health, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006, 6:47doi:10.1186/1471-2288-6-47 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/6/47 | | |

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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract

Background
The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods
The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results

Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion

The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. Background
Job satisfaction is defined as "the favorableness or unfavorableness with which employees view their work" [1]. Some recent research would suggest that job satisfaction of employees within an organization is related to an organization's ability to change [2]. Since a consistent theme in the literature for the past 20 years (or more) has been the inability of some nursing homes to change in a meaningful way, especially in the area of quality of care [3], in this context improving job satisfaction may be important in improving some aspects of the industry. Job satisfaction of nursing home administrators (NHAs) may be especially important, because administrators can have a pervasive influence on facility performance and quality of care [4]. Castle [5], for example, has shown a positive association between NHA turnover and the resident outcomes of catheterization, restraint use, pressure ulcers, psychoactive medications, and quality of care deficiencies. Smith, Shortell, and Saxberg describe NHAs as "the critical variable affecting quality of care" [6]. Singh and Schwab [7] have examined the organizational destabilization that can occur when NHAs turnover [7]. Resident satisfaction would also appear to be influenced by NHAs [8]. Given the importance of NHAs and their potential impact on quality, a valid and reliable instrument to assess their job satisfaction is desirable. However, we found that no instrument currently exists that was developed specifically for this purpose. In this investigation, we use data from 721 NHAs to develop such an instrument. Several generic job satisfaction instruments are readily available for use [9]. These include the Job Description Index [10], revised Index of Work Satisfaction [11], modified Job Description Index [12], and the Measure of Job Satisfaction [13], to name just a few. Gillies, Foreman, and Pettengill [14] reviewed job satisfaction instruments, and found none to be extensively used or developed with long-term care settings in mind. This by itself is not necessarily problematic, as these instruments were designed for general applications. But what is problematic is that studies using existing job satisfaction instruments in long-term care settings have generally been dissatisfied with the performance of these preexisting instruments [15]. Moreover, other factors may also reduce the performance of these preexisting instruments for use with...
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