An information system (IS) is a set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (process), store, and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a reaction (feedback mechanism) to meet an objective. The feedback mechanism is the component that helps organizations achieve their goals, such as in: creasing profits or improving customer service.
The Components of an information System Feedback is critical to the successful operation of a system.
Input, Processing, Output, Feedback Input
In information systems, input is the activity of gathering and capturing raw data. In producing paychecks, for example, the number of hours every employee works must be collected before paychecks can be calculated or printed. In a university grading system, instructors must submit student grades before a summary of grades for the semester or quarter can be compiled and sent to the students. PROCESSING
In information systems, processing means converting or transforming data into useful outputs. Processing can involve making calculations, comparing data and taking alternative actions, and storing data for future use. Processing data into useful information is critical in business settings. Processing can be done manually or with computer assistance. OUTPUT
In information systems, output involves producing useful information, usually in the form of documents and reports. Outputs can include paychecks for employees, reports for managers, and information supplied to stockholders, banks, government agencies, and other groups. In some cases, output from one system can become input for another. For example, output from a system that processes sales orders can be used as input to a customer billing system. FEEDBACK
In information systems feedback is information from the system that is used to make changes to input or processing activities. For example, errors or problems might make it necessary to correct input data or change...
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