I.Theory of Existentialism
Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authoritites creating it for them. It emerged as a movement in twentieth-century literature and philosophy, though it had forerunners in earlier centuries. Existentialism generally postulates that the absence of a transcendent force (such as God) means that the individual is entirely free, and therefore, ultimately responsible. It is up to humans to create an ethos of personal responsibility outside any branded belief system. In existentialism views, personal articulation of being is the olny way to rise above humanity`s absurd condition of much suffering and inevitable death. Existentialism is a reaction against traditional philosophies, such as rationalism and empiricism, that seek to discover an ultimate order in metaphysical principles or in the structure of the observed world, and thereby seek to discover universal meaning. Existentialism originated with the nineteenth-century philosophers Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche. It became prevalent in Continental philosophy, and literary figures such as Fyodor Dostoevsky also contributed to the movement. In the 1940s and 1950s, French existentialism such as Jean-Paul Satre, Albert Camus, and Simone de Beauvoir, wrote scholarly and fictional works that popularized existential themes such as “dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, commitment, and nothingness.” Walter Kaufmann describes existentialism as “The refusal to belong to any school of thought, the repudiation of the adequacy of any body of beliefs whatever, and especially of systems, and a marked dissatisfaction with traditional phylosophy as superficial, academic, and remote from life.” Existentialism tends to focus on the question of human existence – the feeling that there is no purpose, indeed nothing, at the core of existence. Finding a way to counter this nothingness, by embracing existence, is the fundamental theme of existentialism, and the root of the phylosophy’s name. In existentialism view, they asserts that a human finds oneself already in a world and prior context that the human cannot think away. In other words, the ultimate and unquestionable reality is not consciousness but existence. A central proposition of existentialism is that humans define their own meaning in life. Such a view might be phrased technically by philosophers as existence precedes essence, that is a human’s existence conceptually precedes the essence or meaning that may be ascribed to the life. Satre, in Essays in Extentialism, further highlights this consciousness of being thrown into existence in the following fashion: “If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be.” Emphasizing action, freedom, and decision as fundamental, existentialist oppose themselves to rationalism and positivism. That is, they argue against definitions of human beings as primarily rational. Rather, existentialists look at where people find meaning. Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based on what has meaning to them rather that what is rational. A further type of existentialism is agnostic existentialists, who make no claim to know whether or not there is a “greater picture”; rather, they simply assert that the greatest truth is that which the individual chooses to act upon.
II.What is Superhero
A superhero – sometimes written as super hero – is a fictional character of extraordinary physical ability dedicated to acts in the sake of public interest. Since the debut of the prototypal superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes – ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas – have dominated American comic books and crossed over...