An English Reader for Postgraduates

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研究生英语阅读教程

An English Reader for Postgraduates

主编:朱 波
编者:梁砾文 王 伟

________出版社

前 言

语言不是教会的,而是学习者学会的。体验是学习的基础,也是语言发展的基础;体验对于外语学习的重要性无论在理论还是在实践方面都已经得到广泛认同。学习者是否能体验到语言的发展过程将是学习者能否成功的关键。在“体验式”外语教学中,“教材”是教师得以控制其他要件的工作“平台”。一部具有体验基础,能提供体验环境的教材,对语言教学具有重要价值。非英语专业研究生英语的教与学,是一个高起点、高要求的活动。近年来,我国研究生培养模式开始从学术型人才为主转向以应用型人才为主,社会对毕业生英语水平要求越来越高。研究生不仅读、写、译能力要真正过关,还要有较强的听、说等应用能力。在注重实用化的教学环境中,教学重点也开始从“我们该教些什么?让我们设计一个大纲、一套教材来教这些东西”转向(1) 促进语言学习的条件是什么?(2)如何在课堂中创造这些条件?

作为南京航空航天大学《硕士生学位英语教改项目》的成果之一,《研究生英语阅读教程》旨在为非英语专业研究生提供一个体验和发展的平台。全书包括16个单元,每单元由Text A, Writing, Text B, Further Reading, Translation,和Research and Presentation 等部分构成。在编写中,教材突出了几个特点:(1)主题性,每个单元紧扣一个关键词;(2)思辨性,以阅读为基础,通过阅读来启发思想; (3) 感染性,选文力求和时代结合,与生活贴近,注重语言的感染力; (4) 自主性,创造具体的应用环境,让学生变被动为主动,形成自主能力;(5)合作性,通过师生和同侪之间的互动,促进交流,提高语言水平。

Text A为每单元重点,学习者可借助课后注释,加强对课文内容的理解。Text B为提高要求,教师可通过课后问题组织学生讨论。Further Reading意在激发阅读兴趣,就相关话题提供更多背景知识或素材。在领会阅读内容的基础上,学生可通过Writing和Translation等“输出型”练习,锻炼实用能力。针对研究生的特点,每单元还列出了一些选题,为水平较高者提供了研究和深入学习的机会。在教学中,教师和学生可根据实际情况,灵活地使用本教材。本书为非英语专业硕士生英语课量身订做,同时也适合通过大学英语四级、希望进一步提高英语水平的同学,备考大学英语六级和研究生英语入学考试的同学,以及各种社会自学考试人员和自学者。

在《研究生英语阅读教程》编写过程中,编者得到了南京航空航天大学外国语学院吴鼎民院长、何江胜副院长、谢小苑副院长的大力支持,范祥涛教授就项目策划、编写理念和题材范围等提出了指导性意见,唐承贤教授和陆红副教授审读了全书,在此表示衷心感谢!教材编写是一项综合性工作,尽管编者尽心尽力,一丝不苟,但疏漏之处在所难免,敬请同行和读者批评指正。

编者于2011年元月 Contents

Unit 15
Text A Apology of Socrates (excerpt)5
Text B A Person Who Apologises Has the Moral Ball in His Court8 Unit 214
Text A The Literature of Knowledge and the Literature of Power14 Text B How Should One Read a Book?17
Unit 322
Text A The Three New Yorks22
Text B A Unified Theory of Urban Living24
Unit 431
Text A Why Civilizations Will Clash?31
Text B Is American Culture “American”?34
Unit 542
Text A Celebrating Entrepreneurs42
Text B Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish46
Unit 652
Text A An Ugly New Footprint in the Sand52
Text B Filtering Wildlife55
Unit 762
Text A Genes for High Altitudes62
Text B Looking at Sexual Selection65
Unit 871
Text A On Friendship71
Text B A Friend in Need74
Unit 982
Text A We Need a Dug-out Canoe to Navigate the Net.82
Text B Always on85
Unit 1091
Text A The “Standard”91
Text B The Benefits of Multilingualism94
Unit 11101
Text A A Crime of Compassion101
Text B In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia104
Unit 12110
Text A From Composer to Interpreter to Listener110
Text B How We Listen to Music113
Unit 13120
Text A An Observation and an Explanation120
Text B Our Evolving View of Childhood122
Unit 14129
Text A On Becoming a Scientist129
Text B What Is a Scientific Paper?131
Unit 15138
Text A The Sporting Spirit138
Text B Reflections on Swimming141
Unit 16147
Text A How to Avoid Foolish Opinions147
Text B The Advantages of Stupidity149

Unit 1

Introduction
The meaning of apology has changed greatly over times. In ancient Greek, it was jurisprudential: signifying a defense, or a defense speech in which the prosecution’s case was answered point by point. Text A is one of the earliest existing documents of Greek philosophy and traditionally the first complete text read in the study of Classical Greek. Text B argues for a ready apology in life and concludes a person who apologises has the moral ball in his court.

Text A Apology of Socrates (excerpt)

Let us reflect and we shall see that there is great reason to hope that death1 is a good; for one of two things — either death is a state of nothingness and utter unconsciousness, or, as men say, there is a change and migration of the soul from this world to another.

Now if you suppose that there is no consciousness, but a sleep like the sleep of him who is undisturbed even by dreams, death will be an unspeakable gain. For if a person were to select the...
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