An energy efﬁcient pedestrian aware Smart Street Lighting system ¨ Reinhard Mullner and Andreas Riener
Institute for Pervasive Computing, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria Abstract
Purpose – Conventional street lighting systems in areas with a low frequency of passersby are online most of the night without purpose. The consequence is that a large amount of power is wasted meaninglessly. With the broad availability of ﬂexible-lighting technology like light-emitting diode lamps and everywhere available wireless internet connection, fast reacting, reliably operating, and power-conserving street lighting systems become reality. The purpose of this work is to describe the Smart Street Lighting (SSL) system, a ﬁrst approach to accomplish the demand for ﬂexible public lighting systems. Design/methodology/approach – This work presents the SSL system, a framework developed for a dynamic switching of street lamps based on pedestrians’ locations and desired safety (or “fear”) zones. In the developed system prototype, each pedestrian is localized via his/her smartphone, periodically sending location and conﬁguration information to the SSL server. For street lamp control, each and every lamppost is equipped with a ZigBee-based radio device, receiving control information from the SSL server via multi-hop routing. Findings – This research paper conﬁrms that the application of the proposed SSL system has great potential to revolutionize street lighting, particularly in suburban areas with low-pedestrian frequency. More important, the broad utilization of SSL can easily help to overcome the regulatory requirement for CO2 emission reduction by switching off lampposts whenever they are not required. Research limitations/implications – The paper discusses in detail the implementation of SSL, and presents results of its application on a small scale. Experiments have shown that objects like trees can interrupt wireless communication between lampposts and that inaccuracy of global positioning system position detection can lead to unexpected lighting effects. Originality/value – This paper introduces the novel SSL framework, a system for fast, reliable, and energy efﬁcient street lamp switching based on a pedestrian’s location and personal desires of safety. Both safety zone deﬁnition and position estimation in this novel approach is accomplished using standard smartphone capabilities. Suggestions for overcoming these issues are discussed in the last part of the paper. Keywords Energy efﬁcient systems, User-centered design, Location-aware applications, Mobile computing, Wireless sensor systems, Lighting systems, Computing, Mobile technology Paper type Research paper
Pedestrian aware Smart Street Lighting 147
Received 30 November 2010 Revised 7 February 2011 Accepted 23 February 2011
1. Intelligent street lighting to reduce CO2 emissions Lighting systems are an important facility of cities, increasing the safety of road trafﬁc participants on the one hand, and pedestrians’ sense of security on the other. A constant lightening is the best solution in busy areas; however, it is deﬁnitely not in rural residential areas. In the former case, a lot of people are walking around all night long, moving from their workplace or a shopping tour to restaurants, cinemas, and bars. In the latter case, however, only a low number of residents and passersby using the streets
International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications Vol. 7 No. 2, 2011 pp. 147-161 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1742-7371 DOI 10.1108/17427371111146437
during the night, coming from their work and moving to their homes (or the other way round). In such a scenario, the temporal need for lighted streets are, in relation to a continuous illumination of streets, often incredibly small. As energy consumption (or CO2...