An Appraisal of the Role of Commercial Bank in Developing Economy

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ABSTRACT

Commercial banks are one of the three primary agents which help circulating funds in the market. Commercial banks provide loans and corporate bonds to the households, new start ups and small medium enterprises to run their businesses. It also obtains money from the households and invests that money to other profitable investments. The money held as customer account then accrues interest which is given to the customer in the form of periodic payments. The commercial banks play an important part of economy when they are involved in bidding process of government securities. Various services and products provided by commercial banks such as car leasing, mortgage financing, credit cards etc provide easy accessibility of funds to the customers. Hence great deal of money circulated in the economy is contributed by the commercial banks. Commercial banks are also an important element in implementing the monetary and fiscal policy by the central bank Hypothesis were formulated and tested through chi-square statistical test and the findings show commercial banks play diverse roles in developing economy in which Nigeria is not left out.

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The name bank derives from the Italian word banco "desk/bench", used during the Renaissance era by Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions above a desk covered by a green tablecloth. However, traces of banking activity can be found even in ancient times. In fact, the word traces its origins back to the Ancient Roman Empire, where moneylenders would set up their stalls in the middle of enclosed courtyards called macella on a long bench called a bancu, from which the words banco and bank are derived. As a moneychanger, the merchant at the bancu did not so much invest money as merely convert the foreign currency into the only legal tender in Rome – that of the Imperial Mint.Commercial banks engage in the following activities: * processing of payments by way of telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, internet banking, or other means * issuing bank drafts and bank cheques

* accepting money on term deposit
* lending money by overdraft, installment loan, or other means * providing documentary and standby letter of credit, guarantees, performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and other forms of off balance sheet exposures * safekeeping of documents and other items in safe deposit boxes * sales, distribution or brokerage, with or without advice, of: insurance, unit trusts and similar financial products as a “financial supermarket” * cash management and treasury

* merchant banking and private equity financing
Traditionally, large commercial banks also underwrite bonds, and make markets in currency, interest rates, and credit-related securities, but today large commercial banks usually have an investment bank arm that is involved in the aforementioned activities

1.2Background to the study

Banking occupies one of the most important positions in the modern economic world. It is necessary for trade and industry. Hence it is one of the great agencies of commerce. Although banking in one form or another has been in existence from very early times, modern banking is of recent origin. It is one of the results of the Industrial Revolution and the child of economic necessity. Its presence is very helpful to the economic activity and industrial progress of a country. A commercial bank is a profit-seeking business firm, dealing in money and credit. It is a financial institution dealing in money in the sense that it accepts deposits of money from the public to keep them in its custody for safety. So also, it deals in credit, i.e., it creates credit by making advances out of the funds received as deposits to needy people. It thus, functions as a mobiliser of saving in the economy. A bank is, therefore like a reservoir into which flow the savings, the idle surplus money of households and from which loans...
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