An Analysis on the Effectiveness of Malaysia Current Recycling Campaign.

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background
Macmillan English Dictionary defines recycling as “the process of treating waste materials such as newspaper and bottles so that they can be used again”. Beside paper and bottles there have lots of recyclable items such as aluminum cans, scrap metals, plastic and printer cartridges. Recycling saves energy and reduces pollution and would help slow down global climate change.

The history of recycling is started nearly 4000 years ago, there was a recovery and reuse system of bronze scrap in operation in Europe and there is evidence that composting was carried out in China. In 1898, The Association of Cleansing Superintendents is established, which today has evolved into the Institute of Wastes Management. While in 1921, The British Waste Paper Association is established to help develop the trade in waste paper for recycling (Waste Online).

The origins of the three arrows of recycling are created in first Earth Day in April, 1970. The Container Corporation of American (CCA), a paperboard company knowing that paper product recycling was an effective method of conserving natural resources. Hence, CCA planned and promote awareness by sponsored a nationwide art contest for a design that would help identify the company's products that were manufactured using content that was recycled or recyclable. The winning symbol is created by Gary Dean Anderson's design which he drew heavily on influences from the ‘Mobius Strip’ made famous by artist, M.C. Escher (Bates, D B 2008). Since then, the three arrows of recycling symbol is widely use on recyclable products until nowadays.

In Malaysia, 15,000 tons of rubbish collected daily which will take only 9.6 days to fill up the Petronas Twin Towers with garbage. Besides that, recycling can help the government to save RM90 million from the entire cost of handling solid waste per year (Malaysia Official Recycling Website). Hence, Malaysia government carry on various ways to motivate Malaysia citizen to practice recycling as a part of their life.

1.2 Problem Statements
The recycling trend in Malaysia is not widely adopted by the citizen. The government and NGOs launched different kinds of recycling campaign but the citizen is not motivated to practice recycling as a habit of everyday life. However, the effectiveness of Malaysia current recycling campaign has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the problem of current recycling campaign by conducting quantitative and qualitative study and propose a new and more effective recycling campaign in Malaysia.

1.3 Research Objectives
The research objectives are formed in order to analyze the effectiveness of current recycling campaign in Malaysia.

To identify the environment issues and recycling activities in Malaysia. •To investigate on the strategies of current recycling campaign in Malaysia. •To find out the citizen actions and perceptions toward current recycling campaign in Malaysia •To build a new recycling campaign and strategy to increase the recycling rate and reduce the wastage rate. •To enquiry the opinions and acceptance of citizen about the future recycling plan.  2.0 Literature Review

Literature review will examine past academicians findings and literature for understanding the current environment issues facing by Malaysia, current recycling campaign and the strategies of recycling in Malaysia.

2.1 Malaysia Environment Issues
Malaysia, which is at an intermediary stage of development, is facing tremendous challenge in ensuring sustainable development. The national statistics showed that the state of some of the Malaysian environment is rather stressful. Urban air quality, river water quality, deforestation, household wastes and hazardous wastes are some of the examples of environmental issues faced by the nation. The air quality index particularly in the urban areas has deteriorated and falls under moderate levels with API of...
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