An Analysis of the Causes of Global Health Issues
Global health issues have become an increasing worldwide controversy in the past four decades. The most significant health issues are communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases. The WHO Global status report shows that particularly the non-communicable disease is a growing global burden, and it is responsible for 63 percent of 57 million deaths that occurred in 2008. The majority of these deaths were attributed to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases. Not only is this an unprecedented rate, but also a major concern due to the prediction put forward that non-communicable diseases will contribute to 80 percent of the global disease burden by 2020, resulting in 70 percent death in developing countries, compared with less than half today (WHO, 2011). In addition, the World Economic Forum in 2009 demonstrates that many threats to today's global economic development such as fiscal crises, natural disasters, pandemic influenza and non-communication diseases and NVDs, as the most severe one are most likely to be realized and potentially more detrimental than others (New England Journal of Medicine, 2010, 363:1196-1198) . Among non-communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to mental health problem, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. This will be followed by a more specific description of the problem and a more detailed presentation of the relationship among them.
Depression is one of the characteristic problems among the primary mental diseases that affect nearly 350 million people with estimation (WHO, 2012). First, depression is one kind of mental disorder which can be distinguished from usual mood instabilities inducing a constant feeling of grief for one or two weeks and meddle in the capability of functioning at home, school or work (WHO, 2012). In Akiskal’s (2008) study, the incidence of depressive disorders afflicts one of five women and one of ten men during their lives (Akiskal, 2008, p.1629). The factors of mental health disorders contain internal factors and external factors. Genetic inheritance plays a significant proportion in the internal factors, which increases the tendency of this disease occurring among members of a family by heredity. Studies have shown that if one of the parents becomes depressed, the chance of children getting sick is approximately 25%; rather, if parents are both depressed, the prevalence of children getting sick increases to 50-75 % (Sumathipala, et al., 2009). Another internal cause of depression is personality, which usually forms innately such as low self-esteem, self-blame, pessimism. In this sense, depression is likely to be derived from the ego’s incapability to give up unattainable objectives and ideals (Akiskal，2008, p1629). On the other hand, the external causes of depression include violence, social stress and prejudice. In the case of violence, domestic violence from parents and the exposure of violent material through media can significantly augment the risk of the mental disorder. In addition, people who under the pressure of financial burdens, unemployment, adversities, and war are more prone to develop depression (WHO, 2012).
Second, depression is the consequences of compound reciprocities of these internal and external causes such as cardiovascular disease. For example, more than one in five women who deliverer the baby undergo post-partum depression (WHO, 2012). When it comes down to the effects of depression, patients who severely suffer from depression may have poor presentation on work, school or the family. In a similar vein, it can even give rise to the suicide estimated 1 million deaths per year. The burden of depression is globally rising, which attracts the attention from a number of international organizations or communities to lessen the adverse effects. Some effective interventions for...
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