“an Analysis of Content Motivation Theories & Their Implications to Improve Organizational Performance.”

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Abstract

This paper is an analysis of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, Herzberg’s Motivators- Hygiene theory and Alderfer’s ERG theory. The main similarity among them is they focus on identifying various needs which motivate an individual. It explains motivated performance as individual efforts to meet the needs. These theories provides the way how organization should motivate their employee to achieve optimum performance. It helps in developing dynamic and productive environment which ensure high organizational performance.

The three Content Motivation Theories that discussed in this paper are Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory or Motivators- Hygiene theory and Clayton Alderfer’s ERG theory. The main similarity among them is in their focus on identifying and understanding employee needs. The main difference among them is according the Maslow’s needs must be met in hierarchical order while Alderfer states that needs at any level can be unmet simultaneously and Herzberg said that hygiene factors will not motivate an individual. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory:

Human behavior is goal-directed. Motivation cause goal-directed behavior. It is through motivation that needs can be handled and tackled deliberately. This can be understood by understanding the hierarchy of needs. The needs of individual are serves as a driving force in human behavior. Need may define as “psychological feature that arouses an organism to action towards a goal giving purpose and directions”. Therefore, a manager must understand the hierarchy of needs Proposed Maslow. Maslow's theory is based on two principles which are Deficit Principle and Progression Principle. As per Deficit principle a satisfied need no longer motivates behavior because people act to satisfy deprived needs. According to Progression principle the five needs that Maslow identified exist in a hierarchy, which means that a need at any level only comes into play after a lower-level need has been satisfied. According to A.H. Maslow “Motivation is function of five basic needs.” These needs are physiological need, safety need, love and belonging need; self esteem need, self actualization need. Maslow said that these five needs are arranged in order it influence human behavior. Maslow also said that once an individual satisfy his lower order need than he move towards his higher order needs as the lower order needs no longer motivate him. The lower order needs are known as deficiency needs and higher order needs called growth needs. Now let me briefly describe those needs.

1.Physiological Need: These are very basic needs but very vital for survival of an individual. It consist of food, water, shelter, need for sex, etc. 2.Safety & Security Need: Once an individual satisfy with his physiological needs he move towards second level needs which are needs for safety and security. Individual generally seek security from physical, psychological & financial harm Individual comes under this category of needs are motivated through job security, health bank balance for financial stability. 3.Love & Belonging Need: Individual under this need category seeks love and acceptance by their society & love once. Their behavior has been carried out by emotional relationships. Individual under this category are motivated by friendship, acceptance by social, community groups, romantic relationship, etc. 4.Self Esteem Need: These are higher level needs according to need hierarchy theory. It is need for appreciation, respect, prestige, reputation etc. Individual under this category are motivated by high self esteem which comes from self confidence, recognition by others, etc. 5.Self Actualization Need: This is the highest level of need hierarchy theory. It is need for self fulfillment, individual’s desire to achieve full potential as human being. Individual under this category has accepted them self as they are now they can enjoy their life...
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