American Studies: Cold War Conflicts

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American Studies Unit Test Study Guide 8

Cold War Conflicts
* Communism: state controlled all property and economic activity; totalitarian government with no opposing parties * Capitalism: private citizens controlled all economic activity; people vote * Distrust: (USSR) Stalin resented the Western Allies’ delay in attacking the Germans in Europe and US’s secret development of Atomic bomb; (US) Stalin’s 1939 non-aggression pact with Hitler, and he prevented free elections in Poland and banned democratic parties * United Nation (UN): even though the UN was intended to promote peace, it soon became an arena in which the two superpowers competed and spread their influence over others * The Potsdam Conference: Stalin promised free elections in Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe but broke his promises; Truman’s bargaining (the Soviets, British, Americans, and French would take reparations mainly from their own occupation zones within Germany); US businesses wanted access to raw materials in Eastern Europe * Satellite nations: countries dominated by the Soviet Union; Stalin installed communist gov’t; communism and capitalism were incompatible * Containment: George Kennan; taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries * Iron Curtain: division of Europe

* Cold War: a conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battle field; dominate global affairs * Truman Doctrine: support democracy countries; Truman asked Congress for $400 million in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey; greatly reducing the danger of communist takeover in them * Marshall Plan: George Marshall proposed that the United States provide id to all European nations that needed it; “against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos”; benefits US too- raised production levels and continued its wartime boom * Berlin Airlift: Soviet closed all highway and rail route into West Berlin- no food or fuel; American and British officials started to fly food and supplies into West Berlin; boosted American prestige around the world * North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): a defensive military alliance; pledged military support to one another in case any member was attacked

* Chiang Kai-Shek: nationalist gov’t; fled to Taiwan
* Mao Zedong: communism; the People’s Republic of China * 38th Parallel
* Korean War: North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea; MacArthur led UN troops

* Loyalty Board: Truman issued an executive order setting up the Federal Employee Loyalty Program; to investigate government employees and to dismiss those who were found to be disloyal to the U.S gov’t; make a list of 91 “possible subversive” (a list of communists) in 1948; individuals under investigation were not allowed to see the evidence against them * House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC): a congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War II; believed that Communists were sneaking propaganda into films * Hollywood Ten: ten witnesses were called to testify but refused; decided not to cooperate because they believed that the hearings were unconstitutional; * Backlist: a list of people whom they condemned for having a Communist background; had their careers ruined because they could no longer work * McCarran Act: Congress decided Truman’s Loyalty Review Board did not go far enough; it made it unlawful to plan any action that might lead to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship; Congress override president’s veto * Alger Hiss: accused of spying for the Soviet Union

* Ethel and Julius Rosenberg: leaked the secret of the bomb to the Soviet Union * Joseph McCarthy: senator; need a winning issue in order to be reelected; * McCarthyism: attacks on...
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