American Revolutionary War

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A motivating force behind the revolution was the American embrace of a political ideology called "republicanism", which was dominant in the colonies by 1775. The "country party" in Britain, whose critique of British government emphasized that corruption was to be feared, influenced American politicians. The commitment of most Americans to republican values and to their rights, helped bring about the American Revolution, as Britain was increasingly seen as hopelessly corrupt and hostile to American interests; it seemed to threaten to the established liberties that Americans enjoyed. The greatest threat to liberty was depicted as corruption. The colonists associated it with luxury and, especially, inherited aristocracy, which they condemned. The beginning to the Revolutionary War was after Washington forced the British out of Boston in spring, 1776; neither the British nor the Loyalists controlled any significant areas. “It is matter of too great notoriety to need any proofs that the arrival of his Majesty’s troops in Boston was extremely obnoxious to its inhabitants. They have ever used all means in their power to weaken the regiments, and to bring them into contempt by promoting and aiding desertions.” They returned in force in July 1776, landing in New York and defeating Washington's Continental Army in August at the Battle of Brooklyn in one of the largest engagements of the war. The British then quickly seized New York City and nearly captured Washington. They made the city their main political and military base of operations in North America, holding it until November 1783. New York City consequently became the destination for Loyalist refugees, and a focal point of Washington's intelligence network. The first engagement between the British and the Americans happened on the grassy fields of Massachusetts. General Thomas Gage ordered his men to take or destroy the American's supply of arms and ammunition stored in Concord. He also wanted John Hancock and Sam Adams, who were staying in Lexington, arrested. The Boston Committee leader learned of the plans and called for William Dawes and Paul Revere. He told them to ride to Lexington, then Concord and warn the minutemen to be ready. Dawes took one road, successfully dodging British sentries by blending in with some soldiers. Revere galloped down another road and met with a friend. The man was given instructions to hang two lanterns in the steeple of the Old North Church. Revere then rowed himself to the village of Charlestown, where associates, who had seen the signal, met him with a horse. Revere got to Lexington first and woke the townspeople. Hancock and Adams were taken to a safe hiding place, while Captain Jonas Parker and 130 men stood ready to block the British. The redcoats were unable to locate most of the hidden arms and in the process accidentally set fire to the courthouse. The militiamen, upon seeing the flames, thought that the British were burning down the city and rushed to save their village. The minutemen and redcoats exchanged fire across the North Bridge for a few minutes, causing several deaths. The British retreated into the city and started back for Boston. The Americans quickly ran and hid along the side of the main road. When the British passed, they were ambushed and attacked. This type of warfare continued until the redcoats reached Boston. In the end only 300 lives were lost on each side. The Americans were able to demonstrate their power and determination to the large Imperial Army. They showed the British that they would not go quietly and that they would receive their independence. Two major battles of the American Revolutionary War that was fought in Pennsylvania. The battle of Brandywine was fought on September 11, 1777, near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, southwest of Philadelphia. After a month of strategic maneuvering, Sir William Howe marched his troops toward Philadelphia, the unofficial capital of America. Howe with 18,000 men went...
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