The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775
PART I: Reviewing the Chapter
A. Checklist of Learning Objectives
After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:
[ 1 ].Explain the ideas of republicanism and radical Whiggery that Britain’s American colonists had adopted by the eighteenth century. [ 2 ].Describe the theory and practice of mercantilism, and explain why Americans resented it. [ 3 ].Explain why Britain adopted policies of tighter political control and higher taxation of Americans after 1763 and how these policies sparked fierce colonial resentment. [ 4 ].Describe the first major new British taxes on the colonies and how colonial resistance forced repeal of all taxes, except the tax on tea, by 1770. [ 5 ].Explain how colonial agitators kept resistance alive from 1770–1773. [ 6 ].Indicate why the forcible importation of taxable British tea sparked the Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, and the outbreak of conflict between Britain and the colonists. [ 7 ].Assess the balance of forces between the British and the American rebels as the two sides prepared for war. B. Glossary
To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. [ 1 ].patronage A system in which benefits, including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support. “The Whigs mounted withering attacks on the use of patronage and bribes by the king’s ministers. . . .” [ 2 ].mercantilism The economic theory that all parts of a nation’s or empire’s economy should be coordinated for the good of the whole state; hence, that colonial economic welfare should be subordinated to that of the imperial power. “The British authorities nevertheless embraced a theory called mercantilism. . . .” [ 3 ].depreciate To decrease in value, as in the decline of the purchasing power of money. “. . . dire financial need forced many of the colonies to issue paper money, which swiftly depreciated.” [ 4 ].veto The constitutional right of a ruler or executive to block legislation passed by another unit of government. “This royal veto was used rather sparingly. . . .” [ 5 ].monopoly The complete control of a product or sphere of economic activity by a single producer or business. “Virginia tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly in the British market. . . .” [ 6 ].admiralty courts In British law, special administrative courts designed to handle maritime cases without a jury. “Both the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act provided for trying offenders in the hated admiralty courts. . . .” [ 7 ].virtual representation The political theory that a class of persons is represented in a lawmaking body without direct vote. “Elaborating the theory of ‘virtual representation,’ Grenville claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even . . . Americans. . . .” [ 8 ].nonimportation agreement Pledges to boycott, or decline to purchase, certain goods from abroad. “More effective than the congress was the widespread adoption of nonimportation agreements. . . .” [ 9 ].mulatto A person of mixed African and European ancestry. “. . . Crispus Attucks [was] described . . . as a powerfully built runaway ‘mulatto.’. . . ” [ 10 ].duty (duties) A customs tax on the export or import of goods. “. . . finally persuaded Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties.” [ 11 ].propaganda (propagandist) A systematic program or particular materials designed to promote certain ideas; sometimes but not always the term is used negatively, implying the use of manipulative or deceptive means. (A propagandist is one who engages in such practices.) “Resistance was further kindled by a master propagandist and engineer of rebellion, Samuel Adams of Boston. . . .” [ 12 ].boycott An organized refusal to deal with some person, organization, or product. “The Association called for a complete boycott of British goods. . . .” [ 13 ].inflation An increase in the supply of currency relative to the...