2. Descriptions of Timbuktu in the fourteenth century refer to it as a(n): A) Military outpost in the kingdom of Ghana.
B) Barren and inhospitable location in the Sahara.
C) City of Mali, with a distinguished faculty of scholars. D) Major port of trade with the eastern world on the Indian Ocean. 3. Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries: A) Retarded the growth of western European economies. B) Helped soothe the Catholic-Protestant division within Christianity. C) Shifted commercial power from Mediterranean ports to those of the Atlantic. D) Prompted immediate competition from England and France. 4. All of the following factors contributed to the conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires by the Spanish EXCEPT the Indians’: A) Alliance with dissident natives.
B) Superior numbers and commitment.
C) Use of horses.
D) Superior technology.
5. The massive flow of silver bullion from the Americas to Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: A) Delayed further exploration of America.
B) Increased prevailing wage rates in Europe.
C) Triggered a century of inflationary pressures.
D) Hampered capitalist modes of production.
6. American exploration changed European diets by introducing Europeans to: A) Maize and potatoes.
E) All the above.
7. The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England in 1588:
A) Fanned a nationalistic spirit in England.
B) Increased English interest in overseas exploration and colonization. C) Solidified Protestantism in England.
D) Brought a temporary stalemate in European religious wars. E) All of the above.
8. English colonizing ventures in the New World differed from previous Spanish and Portuguese efforts in that English attempts were: A) Immediate and major successes.
B) Privately organized and financed.
C) Met with little or no native resistance.
D) Strictly coordinated and governed by the Crown.
9. Puritans decided to emigrate from England during the 1630s because of: A) Religious persecution.
B) Political repression.
C) Economic depression.
D) Public degeneracy.
E) Only A) and B).
F) All of the above.
10. As a result of the Molasses Act of 1733:
A) New England rum had to be shipped to England before exported to another country. B) Many of New England’s largest merchants and distillers resorted to smuggling. C) Trade between New England and the French West Indies collapsed. D) New England merchants and shippers gained new respect for royal authority. 11. The underlying cause of the Seven Years’ War in America was the: A) English colonial penetration of the Ohio Valley.
B) French attack on the western forces of George Washington. C) English retaliation against western Indian attacks. D) French takeover of the western fur trade.
12. Americans objected to the Tea Act of 1773 because it would: A) Increase Parliament’s taxation of tea.
B) Bankrupt the popular East India Company.
C) Raise the price of tea in America.
D) Threaten free enterprise in America.
13. Which of...