American Literature

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  • Topic: Art, Difference, Biological determinism
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  • Published : December 23, 2012
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UNIT1
作者认为,整洁的人与随意的人的根本差异是道德上的。前者将整洁放在至高的位置,做事 遵循两条不变的原则:从不两次处理任何事;扔掉一切东西。他们头脑清醒,目标明确,但 他们十分冷漠,以至在他们看来,人,动物,物品都是一样的东西。与前者形成鲜明对照的 是, 后者往往头脑里充满了各种各样, 一时冲动的浪漫奇想。 他们似乎对一切都有感情依恋。 从某种意义上,我们可以这么说,大多数政治家和将军是属于第一种类型的人,而大多数诗 人和艺术家则是属于第二种类型的人。 The author holds that the fundamental difference between neat people and sloppy people is moral. The former place neatness above everything else and work on two unvarying principles: never handle any item twice; and throw everything away. They are clear-minded and objective, but they are so indifferent that people, animals and things are all one to them. In sharp contrast, the latter fill their minds with all kinds of romantic whims and their ideals are just too perfect to come true in reality. What’s more, the latter have a loving heart and seem to show sentimental attachments to everything. In a way, we may conclude that most statesmen and generals fall into the former category while most poets and artists belong to the latter type. UNIT2

种瓜得瓜,你若给别人幸福,别人就会给你幸福。这是故事《救护车姑娘》给我们的启示。 故事的女主人公曾经是十分严重的疑病症患者。 她对疾病非常敏感, 甚至到了从不看颇受欢 迎的医学连续剧的程度。但是,有一天,她看到了一个启示,上面写着:需要一个志愿急诊 医士。她心想, ”如果我能勇敢地面对使我感到恐惧的事,或许我还可以拯救我自己。 于 “ 是,她学习了有关课程,获得了证书,成了一名志愿者急诊医士。而后,她帮助了许多在困 难中的人,处理了许多急症病例。随着时间的流逝,她的能力和专业技术知识在工作中得到 了更加充分的展现,她赢得了很多人的尊重。同时,她对于疾病,甚至死亡几乎都不感到恐 惧了。她说: ”我在帮助别人的过程中学会了帮助自己。 “Whatsoever a man sows, that shall he also reap. Whoever gives happiness is returned with happiness. That’s the moral story Ambulance Girl has given us. The heroine used to be a raging hypochondriac. She was sensitive about illness to such an extent that she never watched a popular serial medical drama. However, one day she saw a sign which read: A Volunteer EMT Wanted. She said to herself, “If I can face bravely what scares me, I may possibly save myself.” Then she took some relevant courses, acquired a certificate and became an EMT. Later on, she offered a deal of help to many people in trouble, and dealt with many emergency cases. With the passage, she has demonstrated in an increasing measure capability and expertise, and she subsequently won wide respect. In the mean time, she feels least scared of illness, even death. She says, “I’ve learnt to help myself in helping others” UNIT3

无知是我们理性生活的最大障碍之一。 对病痛的无知就是一个恰当的例子。 很多人几乎不知 道,疼痛并不是表明健康状态极糟,而经常是压力,担忧,无聊,枯燥,甚至是睡眠不足, 饮食过量或缺乏锻炼造成的。更为糟糕的是,他们对疼痛十分敏感。结果,医生的办公室里 挤满了各种因疼痛而前来就医的人。医生往往处在一个进退两难的境地。一方面,他们在病 人身上找不到引起疼痛的器质性病因:另一方面,他们又怕忽视一些症状,而这些症状可能 是潜在的无法治愈疾病的先期警告。 另外, 如果对于疼痛的根本原因一无所知的情况普遍存 在的话, 那么对于止痛片的药物性一无所知的情况也会变得同样普遍。 滥用止痛片的危险在 于:或许止了疼痛却没有解决严重隐患。人们一般认为,止痛片之王是阿司匹林药片。阿司 匹林药片无需处方即可出售。然而,长期不间断使用该药片也可能是致命的。因此,让人们 了解疼痛及止痛片,将此作为普及教育的一个组成部分极其重要。这样,人们就会懂得疼痛 起始阶段的各种情况, 懂得止痛药的药性及其副作用, 恰当地处理疼痛病例。 Ignorance is one of the biggest obstacles to our intelligent life. Ignorance about pain is a case in point. Many people have little knowledge about the fact that pain is not the indication of bad health, and that it is frequently the result of stress, worry, idleness, boredom, even insufficient sleep, overeating or inadequate exercise. What is worse, they are most pain-conscious. As a result, doctor’s offices are overloaded with people with ailments of pain. Doctors tend to be caught in a dilemma. On one hand, they can find no organic cause of pain in the patient; on the other hand, they are afraid that they may ignore symptoms which could be a warning of a potentially incurable illness. In addition, if ignorance about the nature of pain is so widespread, ignorance about the nature of pain-killing drugs will be likewise widespread. The danger of pain-killing drugs is that they may deaden the pain without correcting the grave underlying condition. Aspirin is commonly regarded as the king of all pain-killers. And aspirin is permitted to be sold without prescription. However, the drug can be lethal in sustained doses. So it is extremely important to make knowledge about pain and pain-killing drugs part of popular education, so that the individual understands the threshold variety of pain, the medicinal substances and...
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