American History 101 Review Notes

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Cold War Terms

Yalta Conference
Who: Allied leader, the Bid Three (Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill) When: February 1945
What: They met at Yalta to plan what would happen to Europe after Germany’s defeat -Stalin agreed to enter war with Japan after Germany lost. -The USSR’s border moved further into Poland.
-Germany would be divided into four zones: American, French, British and Soviet. -The Big Three: Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to hunt down all war criminals and join the new United Nations Organization to keep peace after war (some kind of new League of Nation). Significance: This conference was extremely significant because it was the first conference in which the leaders started to decide what would happen to Germany. The decision to divide Germany between the Soviet and the Americans will have a big impact on the future.

Potsdam Conference
Who: the new Allied leaders, Stalin, new President Truman and Clement Atlee replaced Churchill When: May 1945
What: The war had just ended and Germnay had lost but many changes had occurred as the leaders of two of the Allies countries had changed. This conference had a lot of disagreements -Stalin wanted to cripple Germany completely but Truman didn’t want to repeat the T of V error. -Stalin wanted huge reparations from Germany but once again Truman didn’t want to repeat the T of V mistake. -Stalin wanted to keep its Soviet policies and troops in Eastern Europe and even though Truman didn’t agree, his demand was granted. Significance: This conference was very different from the first one and the decisions made in it were very significant. Since his demand was granted, in the matter of nine months, Stalin will have occupied most of Eastern Europe and impose a communist government in them, which will result to a conflict between the Truman and Stalin.

Iron Curtain
Who: A phrase first used by Churchill but that will spread and start being used more and more concerning Eastern and Western Europe separation When: 1946
What: It was a phrase to describe the clear difference between communist Eastern Europe countries controlled by Stalin and Western Europe. Significance: This phrase is significant because is symbolizes the extremely divided Europe.

Truman Doctrine:
Who: the USA under President Truman
When: 1940s
What: This Truman Doctrine meant that the USA was prepared to send money, equipment, and advice to any country which was, in the American view, threatened by a Communist take-over. This Doctrine also involved containment. Significance: This Doctrine was important because it was very similar to saying to the Soviet that the USA was ready to do anything to prevent them from spreading their horrible communist government.

Containment:
Who: USA under Truman against the Soviet under Stalin
When: 1940s (1947-8)
What: Containment was the concept invented for the Truman Doctrine that said that since they couldn’t really go into communist countries and install their governments because it would be too hard, they would instead work to stop further spreading/expansion of communism in more countries in Europe. Significance: It was significant because it was the main plan that the USA had put in action to fight communism.

Marshal Aid
Who: American General George Marshall
When: December 1947
What: Truman believed that communism would spread to countries that faced poverty and so he sent General Marshal to assess Europe’s economy. Marshal Plan was the plan that Marshal came back with was that the USA needed to put 17 billion dollars to rebuild Europe’s prosperity and the Congress accepted because communism was a big threat. Significance: This was one further step towards a war between the Soviet and the USA

Berlin Blockade
Who: the Allies (Western Berlin) against the Soviet (Eastern Berlin) When: June 1948
What: Stalin was scared that Germany was recovering. Germany wanted to rebuild their economy to be able to feed their people. But the...
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