Revolutions (American, French,
Global Studies II Honors (6th Period)
January 6, 2012
Revolutions happen almost everywhere. Some are brutal others aren’t. Not all revolutions are bad and not all are good. For example the Glorious wasn’t bloody because people wanted it to happen and didn’t fight back when being taken over. The French revolution was very bloody and almost like a civil war and the American Revolution wasn’t very bloody and was a fight for independence. Also revolutions don’t always cause change because usually it goes back to the old way.
The Glorious Revolution began around 1688–89 which resulted in the leaving of James II and the coming in of William III and Mary II to the English throne. It is also called the Bloodless Revolution. The restoration of Charles II in 1660 was met with misgivings by many Englishmen who suspected the Stuarts of Roman Catholic and absolutist leanings. Charles II increased this distrust by not being responsive to Parliament, by his toleration of Catholic dissent, and by favoring alliances with Catholic powers in Europe. A parliamentary group, the Whigs, tried to ensure a Protestant successor by excluding James, duke of York, from the throne, but they were unsuccessful. After James's accession his overt Catholicism and the birth of a Catholic prince who would succeed to the throne united the hitherto loyal Tories with the Whigs in common opposition to James. Seven Whig and Tory leaders sent an invitation to the Dutch prince William of Orange and his consort, Mary, Protestant daughter of James, to come to England. William landed at Torbay in Devonshire with an army. James's forces, under John Churchill, deserted him, and James fled to France. There was some debate in England on how to transfer power. Whether to recall James was on strict conditions or under regency, whether to depose him outright, or whether to treat his flight as an abdication. The last course was decided upon, and early in 1689 William and Mary accepted the invitation of Parliament to rule as joint sovereigns. The Declaration of Rights and the Bill of Rights redefined the relationship between monarch and subjects and barred any future Catholic succession to the throne. The royal power to suspend and dispense with law was abolished, and the crown was forbidden to levy taxation or maintain a standing army in peacetime without parliamentary consent. The Bills of Rights were, in effect, the conditions upon which the throne was offered to and accepted by William and Mary. These events help William and Mary slowly start getting more people to want them in power and it began to start shifting from the monarch to Parliament. Causes and Effects
One cause was that James I didn’t know the Elizabethan way when he took rule. When this happened the relationship between Parliament and the kings were breaking down. They began having many conflicts about tax and how the king cannot do that without Parliament. Another cause for the revolution was that James II was Catholic and people worried that he might try and change he official religion to Catholic. When William took power it was a statement to say that Parliament won over the king. Also this set up a new government and Parliament began approving new taxes. Another effect was they didn’t have to worry about the problem of James II being Catholic and the possibility of him changing the official religion.
In a final act of desperation, Louis XVI decided in 1789 to convene the Estates-General, an ancient assembly consisting of three different estates that each represented a portion of the French population. If the Estates-General could agree on a tax solution, it would be implemented. However, since two of the three estates—the clergy and the nobility—were tax-exempt, the attainment of any such solution was unlikely. Moreover, the outdated rules of order for the...
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