Professor: Alan Rogers
1. Identify two major historical turning points in the period under discussion.
One of the Historical turning points after the civil war was the Freedman’s Bureau 1865-1872 the Bureau of refugee’s freedman this was created by congress in March 1865 to assist for one year in the transition from slavery to freedom in the south. The bureau was given the supervision and management of all abandoned lands and control of all subjects relating to refugees and freedmen. Rules and regulations were presented by the head of the Bureau and approved by the President. The first commissioner was General O.O. Howard, a Civil war hero sympathetic to blacks his responsibilities included introducing a system of free labor, overseeing some 3,000 schools for freed persons, settling disputes and enforcing contracts between the usually white landowners and their black labor force, and securing justice for blacks in state courts. The Bureau was renewed by a congressional bill in 1866 but it was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, who thought it was unconstitutional but congress pass the bill over his veto. The Bureau lacked military force to back up its authority as the army had been quickly disbanded and reassigned to the Western frontier. The Bureau was able to accomplish some of its goals it established a number of University including Howard University and Hampton Institute.
The other Major historical turning point was the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified on July 9, 1868 during the reconstruction era, it along with the 13th and 15th amendments are collectively known as the reconstruction amendments. Of the three the 14th is the most complicated and the one that has had the more unforeseen effects. Its broad goal was to ensure that the civil rights act passed in 1866 would remain valid ensuring that “all persons born in the United States were citizens and were to be given “full...