Amendments

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Outline
1. Amendment passed during Zuliqar Bhutto’s regime
2.1. 1st Amendment
2.2. 2nd Amendment
2.3. 3rd Amendment
2.4. 4th Amendment
2.5. 5th Amendment
2.6. 6th Amendment
2.7. 7th Amendment
2. Amendments passed during Junejo’s regime under the influence of Gen Zia 3.8. 8th Amendment
3.9. 9th Amendment
3.10. 10th Amendment
3.11. 11th Amendment
3. Amendments passed during Nawaz, Benazir and Musharraf regime 4.12. 12th Amendment
4.13. 13th Amendment
4.14. 14th Amendment
4.15. 15th Amendment
4.16. 16th Amendment
4.17. 17th Amendment
4. Amendment passed during Zardari’s regime
5.18. 18th Amendment
4.1.1.Criticism
4.1.1.1 Danger to democracy
4.1.1.2Politicians and political parties
4.1.1.3Land and tax reforms made more difficult
4.1.1.4People’s problem
4.1.1.518th Amendment a bill to fix the distortions made to the 1973 constitution 5.19. 19th Amendment
5.20.1. 19th Amendment challenging the constitutionality of the flawed 18th Amendment 5.20. 20th Amendment

Introduction
Constitutional history of Pakistan is dotted with various strong and weak points. It has all the major features of constitutional systems of the established democracies as inherited from British India. However, constitutional breakdowns, tensions between civil and military wings of the State, coups d' etats, tug of war between judiciary and executive, and uncertainty about the role of Islam in the state have adversely affected the process of Constitutional development in Pakistan. The 1970 elections were the first general elections in the country to be held on the basis of adult franchise. However, the election results that brought Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman's provincial autonomist Awami League as the majority party in the National Assembly could not be reconciled by the military regime. The failure of dialogue between the regime, the Awami League and the Pakistan People's Party, which had emerged as the majority party in two provinces of West Pakistan - the Punjab and Sindh paved the way for a crisis which the military regime trued to resolve by force. East Pakistan was subjected to military action on March 25, 1971. The military regime's failure in crisis management led to its intensification and culminated in the separation of East Pakistan on December 16, 1971. On December 20, 1971, General Yahya Khan resigned and handed power to the leader of the Pakistan People's Party, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto who took charge as President as well as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Bhutto lifted Martial Law in April 1972 after he got the approval of the Opposition for his interim Constitution to govern the country as long as the permanent Constitution was not made. Meanwhile, a Constitution Committee was formed, comprising members of the Government and the Opposition. The draft report of Constitution was presented in the Assembly on December 21, 1972. The Constitution was passed on April 10, 1973 after hectic debate and parlays between the Government and the Opposition. After being assented to by the President on April 12, the Constitution was enforced on August 14. The Constitution of 1973 is the first Constitution of Pakistan made by a constituent assembly elected directly by the people on the basis of adult franchise. As all the political parties with membership in the Constituent Assembly voted for the Constitution, it could also be described as a unanimous Constitution. Moreover, as the political parties having representation from all the four provinces agreed to the Constitution, it could also be characterized as representing a federal contract. Constitution is supreme document of Pakistan, consisting of a preamble, 280 articles, 6 schedules and 20 amendments. It identifies the state (its physical existence and its borders), people and their fundamental rights, state's constitutional law...
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