Alternative Fuels: The industrial gas turbine

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Investigation of alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines

Tamal Bhattacharjee, Paul Nihill, Cormac Bulfin, Ishank Arora

Contents
1.Abstract4
2.Introduction4
3.Hydrogen5
3.1Production5
3.1.1Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons5
3.1.2Water Splitting5
3.1.3Gasification of Waste & Biomass to produce syngas6 3.1.4The process7
3.1.5Application to industrial gas turbines8
4.Methanol9
4.1Abstract9
4.2Introduction9
4.3History10
4.4Manufacturing Process10
4.4.1 Production of methanol from synthesis gas10
4.5Industrial Process11
4.5.1STEP-1: Feed Production11
4.5.2STEP-2: Reforming11
4.5.3STEP-3: Methanol Synthesis12
4.5.4STEP-4: Methanol Purification12
4.6How it works on a gas turbine12
4.7Feasibility15
4.8Advantages & Disadvantages16
4.9Conclusion17
5.Power Alcohol17
5.1Introduction17
5.2Chemistry18
5.3Production18
5.3.1Ethanol from sugar cane18
5.3.2Fermentation18
5.3.3Distillation19
5.3.4Fractional Distillation19
5.4Air pollution21
5.5Advantages23
5.6Disadvantages23
6.References24

1. Abstract
The industrial gas turbine is a key part of modern electricity generation. In 1998 15% of electric power was produced by gas turbines. Due to their efficiency, compactness, reliability and relatively low capital cost 81% of new electric power demand will be met by industrial gas turbines. Gas turbines must meet very strict NOx CO and CO2 regulations. (GL Juste 2006). As the popularity of gas turbines and combined heat and power generation plants increases research has turned to cheaper and more environmentally friendly fuels for gas turbines. Methane C2H4 is the main fossil fuel used in gas turbines today but with increased regulations on carbon emissions combined with the increasing cost of fossil fuels, research is turning to alternative fuels which may power gas turbines into the future. This literature review explores potential liquid and gas alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines along with some of the latest research in the area and some examples of the successful industrial applications. 2. Introduction

The increasing cost of fossil fuels, the fact that they are a finite resource and the environmental effects of their combustion means that research into alternative fuels is one of the largest and most varied areas of scientific investigation in progress today. As with all scientific research, some will be successful and form the basis of future energy production and some will be either too inefficient or impractical to be implemented in industry. It is interesting to note that some of the methods which seemed impractical even 10 years ago are now being introduced owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Fuels derived from biomass and gasification of sewage sludge and municipal waste and some methods of hydrogen fuel production appear to hold the most promise. “Different global energy scenario studies indicate that in India biomass may contribute much more: up to 30% of the energy supply by 2100” (K.K. Gupta et al 2010)

Gas turbines and combined heat and power (CHP) systems are at the forefront of future European strategies on energy production with current efficiencies for combined cycle facilities above 60%.

“The main CHP targets are the reduction of the overall costs and the development of above 40 kW biomass-fired systems..... Gas turbines enjoy certain merits relative to steam turbines and diesel engines. They have high grade waste heat, lower weight per unit power, dual fuel capability, low maintenance cost, low vibration levels, low capital cost, compact size, short delivery time, high flexibility and reliability, fast starting time, lower manpower, and have better environmental performance.” (P.A. Pilavachi et al 2000)

This project focuses on alternative fuels as applied to industrial gas turbines owing to their projected increase in...
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