Dr. Muhmmad Rafiuddin, in his book First Principles Of Education, states: "Every ideology has its own system of education which is designed to foster the love of that ideology in the growing generations of the community of its lovers and to create in them that special type of knowledge, skills, habits and attitudes which is relevant to that ideology and which they need in order to be able to love and serve the ideology whole-heartedly. Every ideology has, moreover, its own philosophers of education who, by their reasoning, justify their own ideology as the only true and sound basis of education and every ideology has its own practical educators who exert themselves to put into practice the educational thought of its philosophers. It is clear, there-fore, that the educational system of one ideological community can never serve properly the educational needs of another community." Allama Iqbal, both as a philosopher of education and as an educator knew what system of education his community, i.e. the Muslims, were in need of. British imperialists had imposed a system of education in the Sub-Continent which served their purpose. They needed petty officials and clerks. The educational institutions like factories, produced that commodity in plenty. How could a Muslim student grow into a genuine believer and a person of character through the education he or she got in such schools, colleges and universities. Allama Iqbal aptly deplored that sorry phenomenon thus, گلا تو گھونٹ دیا اہل مدرسہ نے تیرا کہاں سے آئے صدا لا الٰہ الااللہ
Masters of education have strangulated you. How can you then proclaim "No god but the God"- The education which Muslim children were getting could not mould them into good Muslims. For Allama Iqbal a good Muslim meant a person who- had one integrated personality, possessea fidelity and a developed acute sense of responsibility. As is obvious, teaching is of two kinds. One is conducted in words, expressions, lectures, books etc. and is called "instruction". The other deals with spiritual upbringing, character-building, etc., and is called "education". Generally speaking one is related to letters and the other with actions. But the tragedy is that in the contemporary era almost all over the world, "instruction" stands for "education". Hence the aim of character-building is being universally neglected. This is why individuals without humaneness come out of "instruction centres" miscalled "educational centres". Allama Iqbal saw this and bemoaned over it. Dr. M. Rafiuddin in his book, mentioned above quotes Professor Clarke who maintains: "For whatever else education may mean it must mean primarily the self-perpetuation of an accepted culture — a culture which is the life of a determined society." If a growing generation is not brought up to inherit the culture of the nation or society to which it belonged, then the link with the past breaks up, hence that particular culture cannot continue to develop and flow on. Allama Iqbal in 'Jawab-i-Shikwa', written in 1913, had stressed the same point: باہ کا علم نہ بیٹے کو اگر ازبر ہو پھر پسر قابل میراچ پدر کیونکر ہو
"if a son is not Well-versed in the knowledge his father possessed then the son cannot be deemed entitled to inherit what his father bequeathed." In a short poem entitled تعلیم اور اس کے نتائج (Education and its Results) Allama Iqbal referring to the young generation states: خوش ت وہیں ہم بھی جوانوں کی ترقی سے مگر اب خنداں سے نکل جاتی ہے فریاد بھی ساتھ| ہم سمجھتے تھے کہ لائے گی فراغت تعلیم کیا خبر تھی کہ چلا آئے گا الحاد بھی ساتھ
"We too are pleased over the progress our youngmen are making but our laughing lips do utter a lament also. We conceived that education would bring in prosperity but we did not visualize that atheism would also be coming alongwith it." Dr. Robert Briffault in his renowned book The Making of Humanity lays down as under: "If an English baby were put...