September 10, 2012
The brain is a very important organ in the body, one of the most important in fact. Without a functional brain the body would not survive, we could not speak or think, our internal organs would shut down, and we would inevitably cease to exist. One of many important functions of the brain is the cognitive functioning of the brain. Our cognitive functions come from the cortex of the brain, which is the outer layer of the brain (Williams, 2010). If damage is done to this part of the brain, our cognitive functions will be affected. A prime example of how the brain functions cognitively when damage is caused to the brain is brought up in the well known case of Phineas Gage. The damage he suffered to his brain changed his life forever. Cognitive functions happen in four primary areas of the cortex: the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe (Williams, 2010). These specific lobes control different areas of cognitive function. The temporal lobe is the area in which visual stimuli are sent to be processed into who or what it may be, this is the area where recognition and memory come into play (Williams, 2010). Secondly, the frontal lobe, in this area of the brain memory, personality and emotion are stored. This area of the brain is also where our primary motor skills are monitored and processed (Williams, 2010). Third, the occipital lobe, this is the area of the brain that is responsible for visual processing. Images that we collect are sent to this area of the brain for processing and then they are sent off to the temporal lobe in order to tell the rest of our brain what or who we are looking at (Williams, 2010). Lastly, the parietal lobe, this area is located towards the top of the brain and is used, again for visual information. During this process the brain is able to decide where we are (Williams, 2010). The parietal lobe is...