An algorithm, according to the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, is a set of rules for solving a problem in a finite number of steps.

One of the fundamental problems of computer science is sorting a set of items. The solutions to these problems are known as sorting algorithms and rather ironically, “the process of applying an algorithm to an input to obtain an output is called a computation” [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Algorithm.html].

The quest to develop the most memory efficient and the fastest sorting algorithm has become one of the great mathematical challenges of the last half century, resulting in many tried and tested algorithms available to the individual who needs to sort a list of data. In fact new sorting algorithms are still being developed today, take for example the Library sort, which was published in 2004.

Of all the popular sorting algorithms, I have chosen to research and explain in detail an algorithm known as the ‘Quicksort’. Quicksort is a popular and speedy sorting algorithm that is the multi-purpose, sorting algorithm of choice for many mathematicians and computer scientists. Though of course the choosing of an algorithm comes down to which algorithm is best suited to the clients needs, and is dependent on the specific set of data to be sorted, Quicksort has proven to fulfill the required criteria on many occasions.

C.A.R. Hoare developed the Quicksort algorithm in the year 1960, while he was working for a small, English scientific computer manufacturer named Elliott Brothers (London) Ltd.

Sorting algorithms are designed to be fast, and efficient. To be able to sort a list of data as quickly as possible, using as little memory as possible. To measure or classify an algorithm according to these two criteria, we measure the algorithm’s computational complexity. The computational complexity of a sorting algorithm is it’s worst, average and best behavior. Sorting algorithms are generally classified by their computational...

...Quickselect algorithm
implementation
A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Algorithms Design Course (ICS353) for the completion of degree of Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering
The Computer Science Department
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
January, 2011
ABSTRACT
Sorting and selection is widely used by computer applications intermediary to finish tasks like searching. QUICKSELECTalgorithm is known to be among fastest selection algorithms. It has linear time as average expected time to select. This report shows QUICKSELECT algorithm implemented with sample output provided.
INTRODUCTION
This report shows implementation of QUICKSELECT algorithm using C language on Linux platform. The code represents some algorithms mentioned in “Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis” which is the textbook of ICS353 course.
METHODOLOGY
Algorithms: SPLIT and QUICKSELECT have been C implemented on Linux platform. Then, corresponding functions to finish testing of robustness of the implementation have been implemented. Functions are: swap(),printlist(), and main().
Function: split
int split(int list[], int low, int high){
int i, j, x, w;
i = low;
x = list[low];
for (j = low + 1; j<= high; j++){
if (list[j] <= x) {
i++;
if (i != j) swap(&list[i],...

...Algorithms Homework – Fall 2000
8.1-1 Using Figure 8.1 as a model, illustrate the operation of PARTITION on the array A =
13 19 9 5 12 8 7 4 11 2 6 21
i j j
6 19 9 5 12 8 7 4 11 2 13 21
i i j j
6 2 9 5 12 8 7 4 11 19 13 21
i ………………………… j
return 11, SPLIT = and
8.1-2 What value of q does PARTITION return when all elements in the array A[p…r] have the same value?
q = (p+r)/2, where p = index 0, and r = highest index
8.1-3 Give a brief argument that the running time of PARTITION on a subarray of size n is (n).
In the worst case, PARTITION must move the j pointer by one element (to the 2nd to last element), and the i pointer all the way to j, making a comparison at each element along the way. Since there are n comparisons made, the running time is (n)
In the average (and best) case, PARTITION must move the j pointer to an element at or near the half-way point in the array and the i pointer all the way to j, making a comparison at each element along the way. Once again there are n comparisons made and the running time is (n)
8.2-1 Show that the running time of QUICKSORT is (n lg n) when all elements of array A have the same...

...In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the amount of resources (such as time and storage) necessary to execute them. Most algorithms are designed to work with inputs of arbitrary length. Usually, the efficiency or running time of an algorithm is stated as a function relating the input length to the number of steps (time complexity) or storage locations (space complexity).
Algorithm analysis is an important part of a broader computational complexity theory, which provides theoretical estimates for the resources needed by any algorithm which solves a given computational problem. These estimates provide an insight into reasonable directions of search for efficient algorithms.
In theoretical analysis of algorithms it is common to estimate their complexity in the asymptotic sense, i.e., to estimate the complexity function for arbitrarily large input. Big O notation, Big-omega notation and Big-theta notation are used to this end. For instance, binary search is said to run in a number of steps proportional to the logarithm of the length of the list being searched, or in O(log(n)), colloquially "in logarithmic time". Usually asymptotic estimates are used because different implementations of the same algorithm may differ in efficiency. However the efficiencies of any two "reasonable" implementations of a given algorithm...

...for MIS research using survey.
The first part of the paper defines survey research and discuss its application.
Difference between survey and survey research
In general, a survey is a means of gathering information about one or many certain characteristics, or opinion of a population.
A survey research is conducted to advance scientific knowledge ⇒ for research purpose
Characteristics:
Produce quantitative results. The subjects may be individuals, groups, organization, or also may be projects, applications…
The main way of collecting information is by asking people structured and predefined questions
The sample is large enough to allow extensive statistical analyses
Application
In order to best understand the application of survey method, we compare survey research with 2 other dominant methods in MIS: case studies and lab experiments.
Case studies involve the examination of a phenomenon in its natural setting. The researcher has no control over the phenomenon, but can control the scope and time of the examination
May not have clearly dependent and independent variables
Most appropriate when the researcher is interested in the relation between context and the phenomenon of interest.
Lab experiments involve examination of a phenomenon in a controlled settting.
Researcher manipulates the independent variables and see the effects on the dependent variables
Most...

...phases: aspirations development and alternative evaluation; options consideration; and evaluation of the remaining options and final decision making (Jackson, 1982).–––
Another research approach to choice and decision-making in higher education considers three different levels to student’s choice: global, national and curriculum level. First, the global level focuses on why students choose to study abroad. Student migration and study abroad has become a huge business matched by tremendous investment, especially among western countries. Zimmerman et al. (2000) has identified “push and pull” factors which operate along the students’ decision-making process in the global market. Dreher and Poutvaara (2005) have suggested that economic and cultural forces play an important role in shaping the international students migration markets. Second, the national level discusses the choice of higher education institution within countries. In Australia, for example, James et al. (1999) found that field of study preferences, course and institutional reputations, course entry scores, easy access to home and institutional characteristics significantly influenced applicants’ choice of institution. In addition, the teaching reputation of u niversities has been more important for college students in England than their research profiles (Price, et al., 2003). Foskett et al. (2006) found that students consider more carefully economic factors in times of distress...

...com/how_2043716_make-homemade-pesticide.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide
Books
Greene, Stanley A.; Pohanish, Richard P. (editors) (2005). Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals. SciTech Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-8155-1516-2.
McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. pp 310–313: The Onion Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The researcher wishes to extend her gratitude to the following persons for their assistance needed in the completion of this study:
Ms. Balve Granido, the project adviser, for her concern, guidance, ideas, and support, for without her assistance and perseverance this research project would have not been realized.
Mrs. Marilyn Sadlucap and Mr.Ramil Sadlucap, my parents, for the availability of the computer and Internet in making my write-ups.The parents of the researcher for their inspiration, as well as financial and moral support.
My classmates and friends, for their love, advise, and support.
Above all, to our almighty God who gives knowledge, wisdom and strength to overcome the trials during the conduct of the study.
...

...
Research Proposal
Introduction
Statement of Purpose: Studying abroad has evolved as common phenomenon around the globe. Every year cross border education is becoming more popular and people are travelling around the globe in-search of better education, better living standards and a better future. Everything new comes with new challenges and that applies to international students who travel abroad in search of better education. The research paper will regard and focus on problems that international students generally face at Australian Universities. The research as a whole will also consider various issues such as adjustment issues, cultural shock, language difficulty, understanding the expectation and grading system e.t.c. The motivation behind the research is to bring various problems faced by international students in Australian universities to limelight and contribute for better solutions.
Literature Review
Australia has evolved as one of the best education destination around the world and the number of students are growing every year. It is estimated that Australia provides education to almost 9% of world's cross-border international tertiary students.
(http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features20Dec+2011#WHAT).
A study shows that 2,28,555 international students were enrolled in various universities in 2004, and that is approximately 25% of all enrolled...

...1. Introduction
Men participate in physical activity for many reasons, for example, fitness, enjoyment and so on. However, they may participate in physical activity irregularly. Finding the reasons why men do not participate in physical activity regularly is the aim of the report. Understanding the difference between married men and single men is the main aim. Qualitative research has been adopted in this report. Qualitative research means the researcher can collect complex information on the research topic instead of using numerical information(Zikumund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2013). The follow will show the findings and results.
2. Literature Review
Physical activity is important to people’s life. The benefits of participate in physical activity is numerous. Physical activity can help people “prevent a number of chronic dieases” (Maceram, Hootman & Sniezek, 2003). Nevertheless, people’s participation level in physical activity is low. Duncan, Vandelanotte, Caperchione, Hanley and Mummery(2012) stated that although the level of physical activity participation has increased in recent years, the participation level of physical activity is still low. The main reason for people not participating in physical activity is lack of time (Burton & Turrell, 2000). Spinney and Millward (2010) argued that people who lack time to participate in physical activity because they have time crush with other things. This is also one of the...

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