Tar sands are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen. As a type of unconventional petroleum deposit, tar sands are found in many places worldwide, the largest deposits are found in Alberta, Canada. The Alberta tar sand deposits contain more than 70.8% of the world's reserves of natural bitumen which representing 40% of the world’s combined extra-heavy crude oil and crude bitumen reserves. It is the only bitumen deposits that are economically recoverable for conversion to synthetic crude oil at the price range of $25-$35 per barrel. Although substantial amount of the world's oil is in the form of tar sands, it is not all recoverable. Study shows that the world’s total natural bitumen reserves are estimated at 249.67 billion barrels, Canada maintains 176.8 billion barrels. Northern Alberta’s 173 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen requires intensive processing to convert to synthetic crude oil. However, there are serious social, economical and environmental consequences in the tar sands development. By grading the Alberta tar sands development on each of the six measures of Enlightened Sustainability Policy, this report will provide a detailed evaluation of the overall sustainability of the Alberta tar sands development. Purpose:
The development of the tar sands project against the purpose of harness private interest to serve the public interest. The term “Public” contains two aspects: the public human aspect and the public environment aspect. First of all, the booming economies of the developing countries and the obsessive oil needs of the developed countries have triggered massive oil sand exploitation in countries like Canada. Pipeline transport companies like Keystone and Enbridge captures this opportunity to make financial growth. Instead of harness private interest to serve public interest, these companies embrace their private interest and ignore the public interests. While...