Camus' philosophic, political and social ideas are thus an integral part of each of his literary works and are reflected also in his long journalistic career. His commitment does not, however, lead him to neglect in any way his absorption with his art, and it is always with a high degree of technical skill and uniqueness of style that his ideas find embodiment in literary form. He was constantly experimenting with different genres. His legacy to us appears as essay, drama, short story, novelette and what he terms a "récit" as in The Plague.
It may be argued that all philosophers are artists to a certain degree, but not as regards accessibility to the general reader. It is always interesting to study the fusion of philosophic though with successful artistic expression such as one finds in Camus. The evolution of this thought can be traced through his works. The basic tenet of The Myth of Sisyphus, that of the absurd sensitivity, remains unchanged. What evolved was Camus' concept of a morality for our times.
Before turning to The Plague and The Fall, it is perhaps worthwhile to summarize the ideas which Camus presents in The Myth of Sisyphus, since they are the background of both works. Camus does not pretend to present a metaphysical system in this essay. His intellectual modesty limits him to "deal with an absurd sensitivity that can be found widespread in the age . . . There will be found here merely the description, in the pure state, of an intellectual malady. The recognition that the world is absurd, that true knowledge is impossible and that man is a stranger suffering anxiety in the face of nothingness, is an awareness that Camus shares with many other thinkers. What he stresses, however, is that the absurd is primarily "the confrontation of this irrational and the wild longing for clarity whose call echoes in the human heart." How can this call be answered? For Camus, only by acceptance of the absurd and the decision to live without hope, without appeal either to religion or ideology. He proposes a total rejection of all the abstractions that man has been asked to serve in the attempt to escape the ultimate absurdity of man in his world. Instead, man is left with his only certainty, himself, and by extension, other men, in the present. He must take up the challenge of the absurd to his humanity: "At last man will again find there the wine of the absurd and the bread of indifference on which he feeds his greatness. . ."
Philosophically, then, man can only adopt the position which Camus terms revolt: "a constant confrontation between man and his own obscurity." From this, Camus derives the only morality possible in this scheme of things, and ethic of quantity, not of quality. This is a highly individualistic morality which Camus continually redefines throughout his later works so that this originally hedonistic approach becomes a deeply humanistic one which seeks true justice for all men in their day-to-day existence. Man's potential nobility is indicated in Camus' description of Sisyphus, "the absurd hero. He is, as much through his passions as through his torture. His scorn of the gods, his hatred of death, and his passion for life won him that unspeakable penalty in which the whole being is exerted toward accomplishing nothing." Camus' attempts to give literary life to...