Chapter 8: Nutrients, Enzymes and the Digestive System.
1.) Define polymers.
2.) Explain the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
3.) How does a catalyst affect enzyme reaction?
4.) Define “active site”.
5.) Describe the function of the gallbladder.
6.) How is pesinogen converted to pepsin? As well as what is the use of pepsin in the body? (Provide detailed explanation).
7.) Define enterogatrone and gastrin? How are the two related?
8.) What is the difference between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?
9.) Define Triglycerides.
10.) Fill in the blanks. Amino acids consist of oxygen, __________ and ____________.
Chapter 9: Respiratory System and Motor System
1.) Define Bronchitis and Emphysema.
2.) What is the difference between breathing and respiration?
3.) Trace the pathway of a breath of air from its point of entry to its diffusion in the lungs. (Refer to the structures that air passes by or through).
4.) What is respiratory distress syndrome?
5.) Explain in full detail, the “Sliding Filament Theory”.
6.) What is the difference between flexion and extension?
7.) How does the fact that muscles shorten when excited help supports the sliding filament theory?
8.) How does a CO2 level regulate breathing movements?
9.) List two chemoreceptors found in the carotid artery and the aorta.
10.) How does partial pressure affect the movement of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood?
Chapter 10: Circulatory System
1.) Write the mathematical formula for cardiac output?
2.) Name the disease that is predominant in Canada.
3.) What is the difference between osmotic and fluid pressure? And how where do these processes occur in the body?
4.) Which circulatory system receives “deoxygenated” blood?
5.) Define Vasodilatation ad Vasoconstriction. (In full detail)!
6.) Fill in the blanks. _________ carries blood towards the heart and _________ carries blood away from the heart.
7.) Describe the role of the atrioventricular valves and semi lunar valves.
8.) How is blood regulated?
a.) High blood pressure.
b.) Low blood pressure.
9.) What causes the arterial walls to dilate? (Explain in full detail)
10.) Give three examples of diseases of the arteries, as wells as their causes.
Chapter 11: Blood and the Immune System
1.) Why are the first two line of defense considered “nonspecific immune responses”?
2.) What is the Ph range of the skin? And how does this help the body defend from invading microbes?
3.) List the main “players” (immune cells) involved in the third defense systems and briefly describe each of the functions.
4.) __________ is a protein molecule that protects the body from invaders.
5.) Explain (fully) how complement protein defend against invading microbes.
6.) HIV attaches to the receptors sites of the ________ cells. 7.) What is the most common organ transplant in Alberta?
8.) Distinguish between T cells lymphocytes and B cell lymphocytes.
9.) Why does the likelihood of autoimmune disease increase with age?
10.) Explain why physicians attempting to diagnose coronary heart disease may be monitoring antibodies.
Chapter 12: Excretory System
1.) Why do the walls of the proximal tubule contain so many mitochondria?
2.) In Full detail explain the functions of the following: a.) Bowman’s capsule
b.) Loop of Henle
c.) Distal tubule
3.) State the ALL substances transported for each of the following. a.) Distal tubule
b.) Proximal tubule
c.) Glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule.
4.) What are the causes of kidney stones? Why are larger stones potentially dangerous?
5.) The following are structures of the excretory system, List the letters of the structures (above) in the...
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