Aircraft Icing

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  • Topic: Ice, Air safety, American Eagle Flight 4184
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Aircraft Icing

Aircraft Icing
What are the Causes and Possible Solutions?
Richard C. Williams
Commercial Aviation Safety
Mr. Gary Tindall
February 28, 2009

Aircraft Icing

CONTENTS:
Page
3 …………………………………………Abstract 4 …………………………………………Introduction 4 …………………………..…………… Icing Causes: 4..………………………………………. Carburetor icing: 5………………………………………… Structural Icing 6…………………..…………………….. Types of Structural Icing 8…………………………………………. Icing protection systems 9………………………………………….Conclusion 10………………………………………….References

Aircraft Icing

ABSTRACT

Ice and aircrafts are never a good combination. Ice, which can accumulate on any part of the aircraft, is most dangerous when it accumulates on the wings or similar airfoils. These icing encounters cause many fatalities a year, fatalities that could be prevented if pilots use the strategies and tactics that are at their disposal to avoid icing dangers. In flight icing is always a concern and should be treated with an expedited response, however, proper avoidance of icing conditions begins on the ground during preflight.

This safety report will discuss the many types of icing and their effects on flight. Along with the effects of icing on an aircraft, this report will examine the procedures to follow when reacting to these icing conditions. This report will include accident data as reported by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and more importantly the research and technologies developed to help reduce icing-related aviation accidents.

Aircraft Icing
Aircraft Icing
What are the Causes and Possible Solutions?
Icing is a definite weather hazard to aircraft. Icing refers to any deposit or coating of ice on an aircraft. Two types of icing are critical in the operation of aircraft: induction icing and structural icing. Another important form of structural icing may affect the runway or other resources used by aircraft. A runway covered with even a thin film of ice can cause loss of directional control and make braking efforts completely ineffective while the craft is on the ground (Roy, Steuernagle, Wright, 2008). In flight, including the takeoff, the threat of ice hazard is increased. Icing Causes:

Common sense tells us that winter time brings on icing conditions, however, ice is present, or potentially present, somewhere in the atmosphere at all times, no matter what the season. The secret is the freezing level of altitude, which may be around 15,000 feet during the summer and perhaps as low as 1,000 feet above ground level (AGL) on those “warm” winter days (Lester, 2004). Carburetor icing:

When the temperature and dew point are close, you can be certain that water vapor is condensing within the carburetor of an aircraft reciprocating engine, and, if the engine is run at low speed, the condensation is turning into ice. This is why some engine manufacturers recommend that carburetor heat be applied when the throttle is retarded for prolonged descent and prior to landing (Gleim, 2003). Accident summaries contain many cases of unexplained power loss. Many of these aircraft accidents can be attributed to carburetor ice. Once carburetor ice is suspected –at the first sign of engine roughness

Aircraft Icing

or power loss- apply full carburetor heat (Gleim, 2003). After carburetor heat is applied the engine may run rougher as the ice melts away but the rpm will return to their normal setting. There are many cases of loss of engine power as a result of carburetor icing which forces a landing.

The following accident report summary describes a similar carburetor icing situation: A 106-hour Skyhawk pilot reported that the engine began to run rough and lost power as the airplane climbed through 9,000 feet means sea level (MSL). She then switched fuel tanks and moved the mixture...
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