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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 5 (2001) 343–372 www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

A review of absorption refrigeration technologies
Pongsid Srikhirin *, Satha Aphornratana, Supachart Chungpaibulpatana Mechanical Engineering Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, PO Box 22 Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Patumthani 12121, Thailand Received 11 January 2001; accepted 12 February 2001

Abstract This paper provides a literature review on absorption refrigeration technology. A number of research options such as various types of absorption refrigeration systems, research on working fluids, and improvement of absorption processes are discussed.  2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Refrigeration; Refrigerant; Absorption; Heat pump

Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Principle of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Working fluid for absorption refrigeration systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Improving of absorption process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

5. Various designs of absorption refrigeration cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 5.1. Single-effect absorption system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +66-2986-9009 ext. 3322. E-mail address: pxs@siit.tu.ac.th (P. Srikhirin). 1364-0321/01/$ - see front matter  2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 1 3 6 4 - 0 3 2 1 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 0 3 - X

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P. Srikhirin et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 5 (2001) 343–372

5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.7. 5.8. 5.9. 5.10. 5.11. 5.12. 5.13. 6.

Absorption heat transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-effect absorption refrigeration cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . Absorption refrigeration cycle with GAX . . . . . . . . . . . . Absorption refrigeration cycle with an absorber-heat-recovery Half-effect absorption refrigeration cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined vapor absorption-compression cycle . . . . . . . . . Sorption-resorption cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual-cycle absorption refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle . . . . . . . . . Osmotic-membrane absorption cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-circulation absorption system using LiBr/water . . . . . . Diffusion absorption refrigeration system (DAR) . . . . . . . .

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349 350 352 353 354 355 357 357 358 360 362 362

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

1. Introduction Most of industrial process uses a lot of thermal energy by burning fossil fuel to produce steam or heat for the purpose. After the processes, heat is rejected to the surrounding as waste. This waste heat can be converted to a useful refrigeration by using a heat operated refrigeration system, such as an absorption refrigeration cycle. Electricity purchased from utility companies for conventional vapor compression refrigerators can be reduced. The use of heat operated refrigeration systems help reduce problems related to global environmental, such as the so called greenhouse effect from CO2 emission from the combustion of fossil fuels in utility power plants. Another difference between absorption systems and...
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