Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems in urban areas around the world. The rapid process of urbanization and extensive energy utilization mostly due to rapid economic expansion and population growth over the past few decades has made urban air pollution a growing problem. The air contains varying levels of pollutants originating from motor vehicles, industry, housing, and commercial sources. In most megacities, such as Mexico City and Los Angeles, cars are the main source of these pollutants. Stoves, incinerators, and farmers burning their crop waste produce carbon dioxide, aerosol sprays and leaky refrigerators, as well as fumes from paint, varnish, and other solvents.
1.The industrialization of society cause more factories build up that burn huge amount of fossil fuel contributing to carbon dioxide around the world. 2.the introduction of motorized vehicles,. The two main sources of pollutants in urban areas are transportation (predominantly automobiles) and fuel combustion in stationary sources, including residential, commercial, and industrial heating and cooling and coal-burning power plants. Motor vehicles produce high levels of carbon monoxides and a major source of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides 3. explosion of the population: cause the contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances.mass transportation which enables people to move farther and faster through a city and more work force in industry that run with chemical means.
1. Loss of productivity
There are potential costs associated with employee productivity loss due to perceived poor air quality. It estimates that the building environment can reduce productivity by 2 - 6% and the potential decrease in productivity could be as high as 6 - 8%. Most importantly, the perception of poor air quality could result in the possibility of tenants leaving the building if their employees are dissatisfied. 2. Private cost of production
Potential costs that contribute to business owners that perceive poor air quality including increased operation and maintenance, increased insurance costs, and the threat of litigation. Quantifying the potential property management costs associated with perceived poor air quality is difficult and in the short-term costs can amount to millions of dollars. 3. Social cost of production
air pollution damages the health of everyone, numerous studies have shown that certain groups of vulnerable people (e.g. elderly people, children, and those with underlying disease) are at greater risk of being affected by air pollutants. Additionally, many recent health studies increasingly support the hypothesis that poor indoor environment not only cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, but may also cause premature death.
1. low quality of life
Epidemiological evidence supports an association between exposure to these ambient air pollutants and various health effects, such as respiratory symptoms or illness (e.g. asthma), impaired cardiopulmonary function, reduction of lung function, and premature mortality. In particular, the most serious health impacts include a significant reduction in life expectancy, and premature death, both of which are strongly linked to exposure to PM. 2. global warming/ climate change
Air pollution includes greenhouse gases. One of these is carbon dioxide, a common part of the exhaust from cars and trucks. Greenhouse gases cause global warming by trapping heat from the Sun in the Earth’s atmosphere. The increase in greenhouses gases is the cause of most of the global warming that happened over the past century. Scientists predict that much more warming will likely happen during the next century. Greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for years and cause warming around the world. Computer models indicate that, worldwide, the tiny aerosols cause...