ir pollution control
There are several good examples of measures taken in Sweden that have reduced air pollution levels. However, we will require assistance in achieving the environmental objectives such as those for ground-level ozone and particles which are largely transported over long distances, and it will be necessary for far-reaching measures to be taken throughout Europe. Health effects and air pollution
Out-door air pollution is a major cause of ill-health, causing shorter life-expectancy, hospitalisation, respiratory difficulties and cancer, to name the most serious of its effects. They cause suffering to the individual and costs for society. Out-door air pollution comes from a large number of sources, such as traffic (which in the urban environment is the predominant source), heating, long-distance transport and industrial processes. Particles, ozone and nitrogen oxides are examples of pollution causing many different types of medical problems and diseases. Organic substances, such as benzene, ethene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons are also carcinogenic substances in air pollution, caused by incomplete combustion. In a statistical sample of Sweden's population, one-tenth said that they had health problems, caused primarily by vehicle exhaust emissions and wood burning. The number of cases of lung cancer as a result of the contamination of urban air in Sweden is estimated at between 100 and 200 cases per year, and between 100 and 1000 cases per year of other forms of cancer are thought to be caused by air pollution.
In addition to the direct effects on health of air pollution, indirect effects may occur as a result of global changes in the composition of the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect will result in higher mean temperatures and increase the energy in climate systems. More frequent storms with heavy rainfall can be expected, which may have indirect health effects in the form of injuries caused by falling trees and flooding. This may be...
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