Language, ablity to speak & write and communicate is one of the most fundamental aspects of human behaviour. As the study of human-languages developed the concept of communicating with non-human devices was investigated. This is the origin of natural language processing (NLP). The idea of natural language processing is to design and build a computer system that will analyze , understand and generate natural human-languages. Natural language communication with computers has long been a major goal of artificial intelligence, both for the information it can give about intelligence in general, and for practical utility. There are many applications of natural language processing developed over the years. They can be mainly divided into two parts as follows. •
This envolves applications such as searching for a certain topic or a keyword in a data base, extracting information from a large document, translating one language to another or summarizing text for different purposes. •
Dialogue based applications
Some of the typical examples of this are answering systems that can answer questions, services that can be provided over a telephone without an operator, teaching systems, voice controled mechines (that take instructions by speech) and general problem solving systems.
Natural Language Processing is a technique where mechine can become more human and there by reducing the distance between human being and the mechine can bereduced. Therefore in sinple sence NLP makes human to communicate withthe mechine easily. There are many applications developed in past few decades in NLP. Most of these are very useful in everyday life for example a mechine that takes intructions by voice. There are lots of research groups working on this topic to develope more practical are useful systems.
Since the invention of the typewriter, the keyboard has been the king of human-computer interface, largely because it has been the only one widely available. The search for an alternative method, such as speech, has continued since the 1950s and computers that can be voice conrolled have featured in a number of science fiction films, such as '2001:A Space Odyssey'. While the conversational skills of the film's master computer HAL yet to be mastered by today's computers, speech recognition technology has made significant advances from the limited systems that began emerging in the late 1980s. At last speech recognition technology is a viable tool for both business and home computer users. Today there are many systems developed using speech recognition technology. Some of them are listed below. VoiceType Dictation
IBM's VoiceType is a speech recognition system that analyses spoken words and instantly turn them into text on a PC screen, at a typical dictation speeds of 70-100 words per minute with accuracy in access of 90%. It allows users to have hands and eyes free and to talk, rather than type. This works by analysing phonemes - the sound that make up spoken words - and then matching them against the phonemes of words held in the systems's vocabulary. This process is made more difficult if words are run together in continuous or nornal, everyday speech. When the phonemes run together rather than been separated into identifiable words by a single pause, a large amount of processing power is needed in order to decipher these complicated patterns. For this reason and for viable speech recognition systems that will run on a desktop or laptop pc, users must speak in discrete speech: that is, they must leave approximately one-tenth of a second between words. IBM launched VoiceType Dictation 3.0 in june 1996 and is available in the market for under 100 pounds. Some of examples of people who users this are translators, doctors and writers as shown in the above pictures. BBN Coperation
BBN engage in research, development and custom application services in speech and languages. Their major projects include speech access...
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