Study Guide for Section 4
1. Compare and contrast reciprocity and redistribution economic systems, and the kinds of societies that use them.
2. Explain what happened to the Moriori when the Chatham Islands were discovered. Why were the Maori from New Zealand such fierce warriors?
* When the Moriori moved to the Chatham islands, they could not farm due to the cold climate and became hunter. They learned to live peacefully because their resources were so limited. * Mori from New Zealand were fierce warriors because of dense population, so they had to compete for agricultural societies.
3. What elements led to the conquest of the Incas by Pizarro? What advantages did Pizarro have that the Incas did not? If it had been the other way around, would the Incas have invaded Spain? * Sophisticated weapons
* Superior oceans going ships
* Superior political organization of European states
* Superior knowledge of human behavior
* From thousands of years of written history
3. Why do hierarchies and inequity develop in agricultural societies to a much greater extent than in hunter-gatherer societies? Explain. * When warriors conquest a new nation, land, salves, resources follow
4. What advantages does Jared Diamond argue that Agricultural societies have over hunter-gatherer societies? Explain. * Domestic animals
* War and trade
* Sedentary(앉아서 있는) Existence.
* Higher population densities
* Grain Storage
5. Explain Jared Diamond’s main arguments about why East-West continent orientation is the ultimate (first) cause of human patterns that have lead to inequity in the world.
6. From the video on Guns Germs and Steel, what was the role of writing in the conquest of the Incas? Why did Pizarro have the advantage and not the Incas?
7. From the video on Guns Germs and Steel, what was the role of domestic animals in the germs that helped the conquest of the Americas? Why did Eurasians have the advanatage and not the Americans?
8. What are the big 5 domesticated animals and what continent are they from? How does this help explain inequity in the world?
9. Is conquest to acquire more land and resources for your people morally acceptable? Defend your argument using ethical theories and principles.
10. Compare and contrast the need for slaves in tribal versus state societies
11. Explain why state societies are often multiethnic and multilingual. How is conquest involved?
12. In “The Worst Mistake…” what was Jared Diamond’s main point? What arguments and evidence did he use to back up his idea?
13. From “The Worst Mistake…” Compare and contrast Progressivist and Revisionist views of agricultural societies. Which view (or another?) do you think is correct? Why?
14. In the video on the Neolithic, explain the two main characteristics of agricultural societies that set them apart from hunter-gatherers, and why they occur.
15. From the news story, what is Hoodia, and why are the Kalahari San Bushmen concerned about its development? Explain.
16. Compare and contrast Irrigation Theory with Population Theory as explanations of how large complex state societies arose?
17. What is a kleptocracy, and what 3 main strategies did they use to keep from being overthrown? Explain.
18. What advantages do state religions give large agricultural state societies?
19. Who were the Indo-europeans, and what economic and cultural elements did they bring to (impose on) those they conquered in western Eurasia? Explain.
20. What happened to Goddess worship in early societies of Europe and the Middle east? How might this affect women’s status?
21. What lands are common to the Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman empires? Explain.
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