North Cachar Hills
Agriculture & allied activities
Agriculture, Horticulture & Marketing
All the tribes living in this hill district are mainly depending on agriculture. The primitive system of Jhuming cultivation are common among all the tribes. The practice of Jhuming not only destroy the micro flora and fauna but also affect ecological balance by destroying forest.
So, an attempt has been made through this scheme to replace Jhum by permanent cultivation, terrace cultivation. Moreover the Soil of this hilly region is very suitable summer as well as winter paddy.
Horticulture is the main occupation in the district of N.C. Hills farmers. The altitude varies from 800meters to 1200 meters and average rainfall around 2300 mm and temperatures varies from 6 to 12 degree C in winter and 17 -33 degree C in summer. Out of total geographical area of 4888 sq. km. around 1.88 lakh hectares is suitable for cultivation and 80% of the cultivable land is suitable for horticultural crops. Potential for horticultural development is very bright along with canning and processing industry as this district produces huge quantity of quality pineapple, oranges and ginger through purely organic method as use of agrochemicals is virtually non-existent.
However, all the tribes of this hilly district are mainly dependant on destructive slash and burn method of cultivation or Jhuming and in the process forest cover has been largely denuded and ecosystem has been damaged. According to topography, rainfall and other geographical factors the district has been divided into three parts, consisting of the development blocks,
1st Part--- Diyungbra ITDP and Diyung valley Block.- This particular area comprises mainly of foothill and plains is suitable for field crops such as Sugarcane, Maize, Oil seeds, paddy, pulses and tropical horticultural crops like coconut, areca nut, cashew nut, mango, mousambi, litchi etc.
2nd Part---Sangbar development block has both low altitude and high altitude areas and crops suitable are both tropical and sub tropical crops. Main cultivated crops are sugarcane, Ginger, Turmeric, Pineapple and oranges.
3rd Part ---comprises mainly of Jatinga valley block and Harangajao ITDP. Major crops grown are Paddy, Oranges, Ginger, Turmeric, Girenium etc.
EXISTING SCHEMES BEING PRESENTLY IMPLEMENTED
Major state sector schemes that under implementation are as follows
. Saturation of HYV.
. Dev. of Sugarcane. .
. Dev. of pulses.
. Dev. of oilseed.
. Farmers' Institute.
. Incentive to Farmers.
. Plant Protection campaign.
. Bio- Fertilizer and Manures.
IMPACT OF EXISTING SCHEMES.
After five long decades of development efforts total area under settled cultivation has risen to around 33 thousand hectare and there has been increase in the production of food grains like paddy, oilseeds and noticeable among them are paddy, sugarcane pineapple and oranges. Vegetable cultivation has been nonexistent among tribal farmers even a few decades back but now it's getting popular. Though, area under Jhuming has not decreased, dependence on Jhuming has diminished significantly mainly due to increase in area under settled cultivation and introduction of HYV and improved and scientific farming practices. Area under horticulture and paddy has significantly and average production of paddy in the district is higher than the state average.
CONSTRAINTS AND GAPS
* Roads and communication is the primary hurdle in the way of agril development hampering both developmental activities in the interior villages.
*Adoption and use of modern farming knowledge and technology leaves much to be desired mainly due to remoteness of villages, lack of all weather roads, insurgency and the relatively backward tribal populace.
*In case of field crops more than 95% area is under single cropping system...
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