Agriculture - Irrigation

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Agricultural Mechanization

Strategies and programmes have been directed towards replacement of traditional and inefficient implements by improved ones, enabling the farmers to own tractors, power tillers, harvesters and other machines, availability of custom hire services, support services of human resource development, testing, evaluation and research & development. A huge industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machines has also been developed. Introduction of technologically advanced equipments through extension and demonstration besides institutional credit has also been taken up. Equipments for resource conservation have also been adopted by the farmers. Under various governments sponsored schemes like Macro Management of Agriculture, Technology Mission for Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize, Technology Mission on Horticulture, Technology Mission on Cotton and National Food Security Mission, financial assistance is provided to the farmers for the purchase of identified agricultural implements and machines.

Agricultural Mechanization Development

Efficient machinery helps in increasing productivity by about 30% besides, enabling the farmers to raise a second crop making the agriculture attractive. Raising more crops with high productivity is a path for meeting the future food requirement of population. Development and introduction of high capacity, precision, reliable and energy efficient equipment is the need for judicious use inputs. For crop production human, animal and mechanical energy is extensively used. In small and marginal farms, except for tillage, other operations such as sowing/ transplanting, weeding, cotton picking harvesting and threshing (paddy) are normally manually performed.

Mechanization also imparts capacity to the farmers to carry out farm operations, with ease and freedom from drudgery, making the farming agreeable vocation for educated youth as well. It helps the farmers to achieve timeliness and precisely meter and apply costly input for better efficacy and efficiency.

Adoption of Mechanization:

At present in India, tractors are being used for tillage of 22.78% of total area and sowing 21.30% of total area. Although, utility of manually and bullock operated equipment has been established but the response of the farmers has been selective. The bullock drawn seed cum fertilizer drill and manual paddy transplanter have not been universally accepted in spite of financial incentive from the Government. Due to limited use in a year and economic advantage of many items, some improved implements could not replace the local alternatives. The land levelers, seed cum fertilizer drills have also been accepted by the farmers but on limited scale. Major adoption of agricultural machinery in addition to irrigation equipment and tractor, was thresher for wheat crop

Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and re-vegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growing in grain fields and helping in preventing soil consolidation .In contrast ,agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation and drainage equipment:

Diesel and electric pump sets are common. The shift from conventional flood irrigation to sprinkler, micro sprinkler or drip irrigation systems is apparently visible indicating the importance of water use efficiency for covering more area under...
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