Agriculture in the Sumerian City-States

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There were four main civilizations that thrived or was affected by agriculture. They were, the Sumerian City-states, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and the River Dynasties in China. Agriculture was important to each of these civilations and all four had positive and negative consequenses due to agrictulture.

Agriculture developed early in the Sumerian City-States. In southern Mesoptotamia, the Tigris and Euphtares rivers flooded once a year leaving silt. To provide water for their crops, they dug irrigation ditches and for defense, built city walls with mud bricks. "These activities required organization, cooperation, and leadership. It took many people working together, for example, for the Sumerians to construct their large irrigation systems." Because of this, leaders were needed to plan the projects and supervise the digging. These projects created new laws to settle disputes which created the biginning of organized government. Unfortanutely, monarchs took control. Priests managed the irrigation system and demanded a portion of every farmers crop as taxes. Although monarchs took control, their development of civilization reflects a pattern that occurs repeatedly throughout history.

Because of the rise and fall of the Nile yearly, the ancient Egyptians developed agriculture. This was sicnificant beause the Egyptians worshiped the Nile River as a god. "Egypt was united into a single kingdom, which allowed it to enjoy a high decree of unity, stability, and cultural continuity over a period of over 3,000 years." The harsh climate protected the Egyptians like a natural barrier, which is good because the were spared the harch attacks the people of Sumer endured. The negative aspect of this would be that this limited their contact with other people. Egypt was a united kingdom ruled by pharoahs.

Another place affectected by agriculture was the cities along the Indus. This was around 2500 B.C. in south Asia on the Indian subcontinent....
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