Agriculture and the National Economy

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Agriculture and the national economy

The importance of cotton to the economy

Invention of the cotton gin
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793
Revolutionary impact of the gin
It made cotton producing much faster and more efficient
Impact on slavery
It made less work for the slaves, and it made the cotton much easier to work with Encouragement of westward migration
It was encouraged to grow cotton westward because there was more land and it was more fertile. Cotton became a crucial component of the national economy. Cotton became an important export
From the mid 1830s - 1860, cotton accounted for more than half the value of all exports in the nation. The westward movement
Changes in land laws

Land law of 1820
A national law that lowered the price of all land after the panic of 1819 Preemption Act of 1830
Squatters could stake out claims ahead of the land surveys and later get 160 acres for $1.25 per acre Graduation Act of 1854
An act that stated that all prices of unsold lands would be lowered in stages over 30 years 4.Development of improved iron plows

Jethro Wood invented the iron plow in 1819, which would make plowing fields much faster and more efficient

5.Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper

A device invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831 that made the harvesting of wheat much more efficient

Transportation and the national economy

Opening new roads

As settlers moved west, people demanded better roads for smoother traveling. Roads were opened to stagecoaches and wagons.

Water transport

In the early 1820s, people started to use water travel such as steamboats, flatboats, and canal barges because it was a cheaper means of transportation.

Steamboats
Invented by Robert Fulton, this boat ran on the power of steam Flatboats
Flatboats could not go upstream, so when people went down the mississippi, they would chop up the boats in New Orleans and use it as firewood. The Erie Canal
The canal brought major profits of gold to New York City, and turned towns such as Rochester, Albany, and Buffalo into major commercial cities. It was the longest canal in the world. Development of railroads

Early rail lines

In 1825, the first commercial rail line was opened in England. By1850, there was nearly 30,626 miles of railroads.

Advantages of rail service

The advantages of railroad travel were that it was a cheap, efficient way to transport goods to be sold and shipped across the country.

Clipper ships
Financing internal improvements
State and private funding of railroads

After the panic of 1837, the development and function of the railroads were left up to private investors and state funding to keep the industry going.

Federal land grants to railroads

The federal government extended land grants to lands westward in the hopes that it would become as successful as the Erie Canal.

Communications revolution
Impact of new modes of transportation

The new modes of transportation created new jobs in this booming new industry, and made it easier for other jobs, such as the postal service to function properly.

Delivery of mail

The new modes of transportation made it much easier for mail to be delivered to its destination. Or the postal service offered an “express” service, where riders could mount horses and take the package to its destination that way.

Advances in technology
Emphasis on practical application of science in the United States

The new developments of technology facilitated the growth of our country as a whole in the 1800s. Without the advancement in technology, the morse code would have not existed and we would still be riding horses to deliver messages from place to place.

Examples of the impact of inventions

The invention of the morse code made it so that somebody in New York City could communicate...
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