Aggression in sport has always been a major issue. Whether it be insults thrown around a school yard playground during a game of football. To hateful attacks on other players, be it physical or verbal, in the premier division of any sport. It can be a problem for the individual who is acting aggressive, such as a disciplinary action or the recipient of the aggression, for example they could suffer injury as result. This can have a larger effect. Sporting teams can lose key players due to injury, because of an aggressive action or to disciplinary action, such as an athlete being sidelined for a number of weeks because of their aggressive behaviour. This can also cause problems for the sport’s governing body as a whole, and for these reasons, action must be taken to reduce athlete aggression in sport. Even the International Society of Sport Psychology recently recognized that sport aggression has become a social problem both on and off the playing field and has recommended ways to curtail this behaviour (Tenenbaum, Stewart, Singer, & Duda, 1997) In this information sheet I will describe the different forms of aggression and how it can be dealt with. Definitions Of aggression:
A forceful behaviour, action, or attitude that is expressed physically, verbally, or symbolically. It may arise from innate drives or occur as a defence mechanism, often resulting from a threatened ego. It is manifested by either constructive or destructive acts directed toward oneself or against others. (Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier)
‘Aggression is any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal Means.’ (Bull, 1990)
‘Aggression is any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.’ (Baron, 1994)
‘Aggression is an intentional physically or psychologically harmful behaviour that is directed at another living organism.’ (Thirer, 1993)
Sporting definition of aggression: Used by the athlete to channel their will to win at all odds and determination to sacrifice their own or their opponents, bodies in the cause of victory.
Gills criteria for aggressive behaviour:
Are 4 main factors which describe aggressive behaviour which were identified by Gill in 1980; there are as follows: * It is a form of behaviour: aggression can be either physical or verbal. * It involves causing harm or injury: Aggression is designed to cause either psychological or physiological harm. * The injury or harm is directed towards another human being: Aggression is directed towards either another human or animal. * Aggression is always done with purpose: If a seemingly aggressive act is genially done by accident it cannot be classed as aggression. Types of aggressive behaviour:
Aggression cannot always be characterized as the same. A defender in football can perform aggressive tackles without breaking the rules of the game, and not all athletes have the same motive and expected outcome for their aggression. There are three main times of aggression which can characterize an athlete’s sporting performance. Hostile aggression:
The prime motive of hostile aggression is to harm an opponent, where the chief aim of the aggressor is to inflict injury. Hostile aggression the desired outcome of the aggressor is to harm another player, for personal reasons. For example if in hockey a player can go in for a very aggressive challenge, but if his aim is to get the ball then it is not hostile aggression. If the player goes in for an aggressive challenge where his aim is to not only get the ball but to harm the player then it is hostile aggression. The act of aggression usually stems from an incident which occurred earlier in the game. Take the hockey example again, Say the aggressor had the ball and was dribbling it towards the goal and another player, who is already on a green car, trips him with his...