An investigate on ageing population trend and recommendations for future _________________________________
Population ageing is an inevitable problem to most rich country. It is clear that Italy has been facing serious ageing population issues from 1970s. There are some reasons which lead to this issue. Firstly, one of the main reasons causing aging population in Italy is the extremely low fertility rate in this country and this can be caused by the living habits of Italy’s young generation this country. Secondly, a possible reason that can result in population ageing is the improvement of life expectancy. People can live longer but, however, without giving birth to babies living longer only create pressure to the society. Essentially, Italy will have to face many consequences and one of those is increasing in money spending on health care. Another possible effect of this is workforce declining because of low fertility rate and increasing in dependency rate. Moreover, over the past few years, Italy’s food consumption has been decreasing due to ageing population and low birth rate. All of these results can damage the economy seriously in near future if the situation still continues. Further solutions are suggested, increasing the awareness and motivation of the citizens, such as raising strong campaigns, subsidizing children, legislating policy to increase working age. On the other hand, early education about living independent and marry at the right age from schools and parents are essential to change the life style of young generation will also improve the situation.
3.1Definition and population
By the year 2011, the population of Italy has reached the number of 61,016,804 and rank 20th in the world and people who are above 65 in Italy occupy exactly 20.3% of the total population (CIA, 2011). 20% of the population is approximate 12 million people which are very high number. Population ageing is an inevitable problem in most of developed countries. Population ageing can be defined as the situation when people in a country become older and occupy total of the population more than young people (DESA, 2001). 3.2Current trend and forecast
According to Sciubba (2008), Italy is one of the oldest countries in the world.
Figure 1: Reproduced from Sciubba (2008)
As can be seen from the pie chart, the percentage of people who are over 60 will grow dramatically from 1975 to 2025, thus, this shows that if the situation in Italy continues until 2025, one-third of Italy’s citizens will be 60 or older.
This report not only investigates the possible cause and effect of the issue in Italy but also promote some solutions to solve this. 5Findings
5.1 Main causes of ageing population
5.1.1 Low fertility rate
Low fertility rate is the situation when babies are born less in a country. Since 1990s, Italy had lowest fertility rate in the world (Caltabiano, 2008). According to Sciubba (2008): ‘Between the periods 1970-75 and 1985-90 Italy’s total fertility rate (TFR) fell by almost a “whole child,”. Figure 2: Reproduced from Sciubba (2008)
As can be seen from the line chart, from 1970, Italy’s fertility rate fell dramatically without any sign of reviving until after 2005. One reason for this is that adults do not want to move out and marry or bear child (Sciubba, 2008). According to Kertzer et al (2008), from 1999 to 2005, the age of men and women who have first wedding increased in 2 years to 32.6 for men and 29.8 for women and this number will still increase in the next few years. Therefore, people will have trend to bear children later than before. As women become older, their abilities to bear children also decline, which directly affects Italy’s fertility rate. Without babies being born, the rate of young people will decrease and the amount of old...