A Century of Progress: Science
During the 1800s in Europe, many people were being affected by the new discoveries being made. Advances in biology, chemistry, and psychology led to better, precise results. Even though not all of the ideas were created in Europe, they had an impact on everyone’s lives.
Most scientists were grateful for Thomas Edison’s development of the research laboratory, which allowed them to explore different fields more efficiently. In the mid-1800s, Louis Pasteur, a French chemist, discovered that bacteria caused the fermentation process of alcohol. After conducting several experiments to prove his theory’s accuracy, he convinced most of Europe that it was true. A British surgeon, Joseph Lister, had also heard about Pasteur’s findings and suspected bacteria was also connected to deaths from infections. Following his successful trial of sterilizing, many hospitals did the same. The amount of surviving patients increased everywhere, including Europe. Soon, public workers realized the benefits of cleanliness and people began living longer.
Charles Darwin created more controversy after introducing his idea of change through natural selection which became known as the theory of evolution. Gregor Mendel soon came after, his work starting the study of genetics. Dimitri Mendeleev created a chart using John Dalton’s work consisting of elements and atoms, later on called the Periodic Table. Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre Curie found two missing elements of the table, radium and polonium. These discoveries caused more debates, opening a wider range of scientific answers to previously thought correct studies.
The theories drove more scholars to observe things in a scientific view. One of the social sciences was psychology, the study of a human mind and behavior. Many studiers had varying opinion of what human actions were caused by and how they could be changed. Ivan Pavlov thought they were unknowing reactions to experiences but could...
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