In the late nineteenth and twentieth century there was a departure from the traditional art forms. Rather than represent what is real, artists were presenting abstractions. Technological innovations influenced the arts. Artists represented electric light in paintings with images of light in buildings. With the development of the camera, photography became a fine art. Industrialism
During the early years of the twentieth century, America went through a period of social and economic change. The railroad network enabled the transport of raw goods to factories, and the mass production of goods was then transported to the population. These factories were operated by unskilled workers which came from the immigration population. These people lived in these urban areas. Andrew Carnegie helped build the American steel industry. He was on eof the richest entrepreneurs of his age. He advocated for the rights of laborers to unionize, but his workers still worked long hours for low wages. In his later years he became a philanthropist and donated monies to over 2,500 public libraries and schools. Diderot
Denis Diderot was famous for editing the Encyclopedie. He was another Enlightenment thinker and great writer. The Encyclopedie was a compilation of valuable knowledge of the times. Some of the subjects covered were politics, cultural history, and articles on other civilizations. These articles were written by anonymous writers such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, Turgot, Condiallac and Rousseau. The philosophies of the books represented the enlightened reason, and were viewed as critical of religious and political institutions. The state censors banned it from publication, but in the end it was only delayed. The illustrations showed the details of how printing, metal work, and other fabrications of the period were achieved. The Encyclopedie enabled sharing knowledge of the techniques of the trades for all people. The Revolutions
After the Seven Years' War between Britain and France there was an issue of paying the debt incurred by the war. The British expected the colonies to contribute, but the Colonists felt that Great Britain was exploiting them economically. The Americans disputed the new taxes and laws imposed on them by Parliament. They wanted to elect their own legislatures. This was also a social revolution as the colonists created a new society based on the ideas of the Enlightenment. The French Revolution was fueled by class inequality. The population was divided into three estates. The first and second estates did not have to pay taxes and were the elite. The third estate was the peasants, the majority of the French population. The fact that the French government was bankrupt also fueled the revolution. The third estate formed into the National Assembly and issued decrees for a new constitution. During this period the French lifestyle changed dramatically, and the monarchies were gone. These two revolutions were different but appealed to the same Enlightenment principles. This is evident in Thomas Jefferson assistance in writing the French's Declaration of the Rights of Man. Neoclassical Architecture
Neoclassical architecture was inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. Neoclassicism was associated with contemporary political events. After the revolutions the new governments adopted a style of architecture with a serious tone. Some of the features are symmetrical shape, domed roof, and tall columns. In the United States, Thomas Jefferson modeled his home after buildings by Andrea Palladio. The White House, the United States Capitol, and the U.S. Supreme Court buildings are all neoclassicism architecture. In the United States most public buildings are still built using the neoclassical style. Classical Music
During the Classical period people enjoyed more leisure activities. Music was one of the activities available to the public. The style of the...
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