CHAPTER 13 Trait Theories (p. 447) 1. b. 2. (a)ii, (b)iii, (c)iv, (d)v, (e)i. 3. e. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories (p. 455) 1. The conscious is the tip of the iceberg and the highest level of awareness; the preconscious is just below the surface but can readily be brought to awareness; the unconscious is the large base of the iceberg and operates below the level of awareness. 2. b. 3. Freud believed an individual’s adult personality refl ected his or her resolution of the specifi c crisis presented in each psychosexual stage (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital). 4. (a) Adler, (b) Horney, (c) Jung, (d) Horney. Humanistic Theories (p. 458) 1. a. 2. c. 3. self-actualization. 4. Humanistic theories are criticized for their naive assumptions, poor testability and inadequate evidence, and narrowness in merely describing, not explaining, behavior. Social-Cognitive Theories (p. 460) 1. how each individual thinks about the world and interprets experiences. 2. a. 3. c. 4. external locus of control, internal locus of control. Biological Theories (p. 462) 1. d. 2. Some researchers emphasize the importance of the unshared environment, while others fear that genetic
determinism could be misused to “prove” certain ethnic groups are inferior, male dominance is natural, or that social progress is impossible. 3. b. 4. c. Personality Assessment (p. 469) 1. (a)ii, (b)i, (c)iii. 2. projective; 3. b. 4. People accept pseudo-personality tests because they offer generalized statements that apply to almost everyone (Barnum effect), they notice and remember
events that confi rm predictions and ignore the misses (fallacy of positive instances), and they prefer information that maintains a positive self-image (self-serving bias).