By the beginning of World War I in 1914, all of Africa, with the exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, had been colonized, and initial African resistance had been overcome by the colonial powers. Over the next decades as colonial rule became institutionalized, African resistance to colonialism became more focused and intense. By the 1950s, there were organized nationalist parties that demanded political independence in almost every colony in Africa.
In this final section of this module, we will look at four phases of African reaction to colonial rule: early resistance, demand for equity and inclusion, nationalism/mass movement, and struggle for national liberation. Early (Primary) Resistance to Colonialism
Early African reaction to European intrusion into Africa in the late 19th century was not uniform. A few groups that had suffered from long-term warfare or slave raiding (such as in parts of East Africa) gave an uncertain welcome to European presence in their regions in hope that there would be peace. Other groups strongly resisted the coming of European political control. However, many people had no initial reaction to colonialism. This was because the early years colonialism had little impact on the lives of many rural African peoples. This situation changed as the impact of colonialism became more widespread and intense in the middle decades of the 20th century.
Throughout the period of the Scramble for Africa, European colonizers faced stiff resistance in many parts of Africa. It would take up too much time and space to present information on all instances of resistance. The map below identifies seven examples of early resistance to colonial rule from across Africa. The numbers in the list below correspond to those on the map. By clicking on a number from the list, you will receive information on that particular expression of resistance.
AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE
Examples of Resistance:
1. 1.Chimurenga Resistance (Zimbabwe)
2. 2. Battle of Isandhlawana
3. 3. Maji-Maji Uprising (Tanganyika)
4. 4. Battle of Adowa (Ethiopia)
5. 5. Asante Resistance (Ghana)
6. 6. Samori Ture
7. 7. Libyan Resistance
Demands for Equity and Inclusion: The Inter-War Years
By the end of World War I, most of Africa had been effectively colonized. European colonialists had managed to quell the efforts by Africans to resist the establishment of colonial rule. The next two decades, the period historians call the inter-war years, were relatively quiet years in colonial Africa. This relative quiet, however, did not indicate that the colonized people of Africa were happy with colonial rule-that there was no opposition to colonialism.
During the inter-war years opposition to colonialism was expressed in one of the following forms:
* Demands for opportunity and inclusion: Many Africans at this time accepted the reality of colonial rule but they did not accept the harsh discrimination and the lack of opportunity that was a central part of the colonial experience. Opposition to these aspects of colonialism was particularly strong among educated Africans. Educated Africans believed that "all humans are created equal." Discriminatory colonial policies...