African History Essay

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Thesis Statement
During the 19th century, the abolition of slavery in the Northern and Southern United States had established blacks in the army leading to new military movements including the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth, Sixth Color Infantry and the clash in Gettysburg. Black Americans memorialized President Abraham Lincoln as their savior, creating a legend that remained unblemished for more than a century and his death would lead to the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ending slavery everywhere in the United States and its territories. Introduction

The 19th century showed the abolition of slavery in the Northern and Southern United States had established blacks in the army leading to new military movements including the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth, Sixth Color Infantry and the clash in Gettysburg. There are four primary sources used to provide the most accurate material pertaining to slavery, including works by: Meunomennie L. Maimi, Frederick Douglass, Susie King Taylor and Felix Haywood. Secondary sources are also used to provide a generalization of slavery during the 19th century United States, these include: Isaac Newtown Arnold’s The History of Abraham Lincoln, and the Overthrow of Slavery, Charles Godfrey Leland’s Abraham Lincoln and the Abolition of Slavery in the United States, Lois E. Horton’s Slavery and the Making of America, Robert W. Coakley’s The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1789-1878 and William E. Nelson’s The Fourteenth Amendment: from political principle to judicial doctrine. The Massachusetts Fifty-fourth was led by white colonel, Robert Gould Shaw and received just 2 months training before heading south in July 1963 to launch a night attack on Fort Wagner in the Charleston harbor. Black recruits often earned less than half the pay of white soldiers and black women in the South were considered useless in the war effort, so some were chosen for heavy labor in the fields, nursing and livestock. The most significant battle of the war was the three-day clash at Gettysburg in July 1863, when northern troops led by General George Meade shot down more than half of the Confederate troops sent into the battle. President Lincoln declared the victory was a major step forward in freedom and equality amongst men. After the victory of Gettysburg, many blacks were drafted and caused white riots, because they were convinced blacks would take their jobs when they were off fighting. In May 1864, union General William T. Sherman aimed to seek Lincoln’s reelection by launching his 8 month campaign from Tennessee through Georgia and union troops systematically destroyed everything in their path: bridges, barns, crops and homes all went up in flames. The Democrats called for an immediate end to the war, but there was still paranoia of the war, Republicans could not unite behind Lincoln. Across the South, Confederates surrendered as state governments, local economies, cities and farms were in complete shambles, but within days of the South’s defeat, Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln in a Theater. Black Americans memorialized President Abraham Lincoln as their savior, creating a legend that remained unblemished for more than a century and his death would lead to the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ending slavery everywhere in the United States and its territories. Near the end of the war, the Freedmen’s Bureau's played a main role in providing emergency food, housing, and medical aid to refugees. The Bureau wanted to insure working opportunities for Blacks; however their target goal was to have both sides treat each other as employers and employees, not owners and property. In Tennessee in 1866, angry white Southerners formalized their hatred by starting the Ku Klux Klan, who were led by a former Confederate general and set out to rid black Americans from taking advantage of new opportunities. Frederick...
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